used a frog leg and put a battery to it, which made the leg, move, proved that it was
electricity not a soul making the body move.
• He said that you don’t need a soul to move you can use electricity.
• Electricity makes inanimate animate.
• Johannes Muller was the first to do open a body to study it. Discovered the electrical
impulse, studied the nerves and discovered the transmitting of basic messages through
• Made connections from the body to wires, and batteries. Discovered the brain had sub
• The body as a whole is composed of basic wiring, it is very important where signals
came from, where they began.
• To figure something out we can remove it and see what happens and this is how they
tested what the different parts of the brain did. They would remove or otherwise destroy
parts of the animals brain and see what changes occurred.
• If the top back part of the head, the animal would behave as if it was blind, if the top
centre was removed it would show motor issues or it couldn’t feel certain things.
• Discovered that the brain had localized functions.
• Paul Broca was the first to extend these factors to a human; he connected the two of
• To test on a human he would give directions but when asked to explain what they did
they could not explain in words.
• All patients had the same problem of missing brain tissue in a spot just above the left
ear known as Broca’s area.
• Fritsch and Hitzig added further evidence using electrical current. They dropped a small
wire into different spots of the brain, and stimulated and saw what happened to the
• Phrenology- people thought that the brain was like muscle tissue; people thought if you
work it regularly that the brain will get bigger and stronger. Like working out your
muscles. People used to go get their skulls read and see what was strong and what was
weak about them. – NOT TRUE
• In the mid 1800’s Germany was the powerhouse in research and many other areas.
Germany started researching psychology.
• Von Helmholtz researched the speed of nerve impulses. To do this he gathered a group
of people, everyone held hands and squeezed the persons hand next to them and as
they felt it they squeezed the next persons hand and this was timed and divided by the
number of people and the length of nerve tissues.