therefore no 2 people will act exactly alike, even in identical situations. Examine similarities
in physical/behavioural characteristics of blood relatives. Perform breeding experiments
with lab animals--see what behaviour is passed to offspring.
Cognitive Psychology: Studies complex behaviours and mental processes such as
perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation, and
problem solving. Events that cause behaviour consists of functions of the human brain that
occur in response to environmental events.
Cognitive neuroscience: Attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by
studying the brain mechanisms that are responsible for them. Study people whose brains
have been damaged by natural causes (disease, strokes, tumours). Developed many tests
useful in assessing behavioural and cognitive deficits caused by abnormal brain functions.
Developmental Psychology: Studies the changes in behavioural, perceptual, and cognitive
capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience. As well of physical, social,
emotional development, esp in children. Some study adolescence or adulthood (effects of
Social Psychology: Devoted to the study of the effects people have on each others
behaviour. Explore perception (of oneself and others), cause-and-effect relations in human
interactions, attitudes and opinions, interpersonal relationships, group dynamics, emotional
behaviour (aggression, sexual)
Personality Psychology: Attempts to categorize and understand the causes of individual
differences in patterns of behaviour. Look for causal events in a person's history, both
genetic and environmental.
Evolutionary Psychology: Explains behaviour in terms of adaptive advantages that specific
behaviours provided during the evolution of species. Use natural selection as a guiding
principle. Our species presumably evolved because certain traits (such as the ability to walk
upright) gave us a competitive advantage over species without those traits. They try to
trace the development of such differences and to explore how their adaptive advantages
might explain the behaviours of modern humans.
Cross-cultural psychology: Studies effects of culture on behaviour. Because the ancestors of
different ethnic/racial groups lived in different environments that presented different
problems/opportunities, different cultures have developed different strategies for adapting
to their environment. These strategies show themselves in laws, customs, myths, religious