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PSYA01H3: Lecture Notes (Final Exam)

Course Code
Steve Joordens
Study Guide

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LEC 1 & 2 & 3
What is Psychology?
Study of the human mind.
Study of consciousness and unconsciousness.
Human Behavior.
History of Psychology
Importance of Souls
To pursue something scientifically, one must understand the
behavior of a thing, which conforms to some sort of natural laws
to predict future behavior.
Humans are controlled by a soul meaning they are responsible
for their actions.
Souls are spiritual entities, which do not conform to natural
2 kinds of views:
ANYTHING in the world being able to have a soul and desires.
(Battery, Laptop, Animals, Humans, etc.)
Even the Weather is described to have a soul. (You must
respect the feelings of the cloud in order for rain if a drought
occurs near a farm, etc.)
Intelligence & Soul is the same.
The reason why we all think we have souls are the reasons why
we think we are mystical and spiritual is because we don’t
understand how we can do the things we do.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Cartesian Dualism Machine controlled by a soul.

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Argued that animals have no souls and that humans are
dualistic creatures; being able to have a “machine” part like the
animals. Meaning a part of us is just like the animals but we
also have a soul that can control the machinery; that is the only
difference between humans and animals.
During the inventions of the pressure plates and hydraulics;
Rene stepped on a pressure plate as he was approaching the
statue of Diana causing water to flow through from behind the
statue. Since there was another statue blocking the way of the
hydraulic, the force of the water pushed the statue on to Rene’s
path shocking him.
o Non-living objects have a soul.
John Locke (1632-1704)
Mind is Machine - Argued that humans are fully machines,
unlike Rene’s dualistic view.
La Table RassaThat we are born a blank slate that life
makes us who we are.
EmpiricismKnowledge that only comes from a source
acquired by means of experimentations & observations.
James Mill (1773-1836)
MaterialismNotion that we are completely and utterly
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798)
Argued that we (humans) are partially machines;
Meaning electrical stimulation to the muscle is enough to make
it contract in order to produce animation.
The ability to make a dead object move because of
“electrochemical” meaning being able to take advantage of
chemical reactions through introduction of electrical energy.
Johannes Muller (1801-1858)

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Had access to human bodies.
Discovered that the human bodies are made up of wires called
“Neural Circuits”.
o Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies=> human body in
machine terms.
Pierre Florens (1774-1867)
Started a study called “Ablation Studies” which was to take
the body of an animal; do a bunch of tests. And then, using
surgery to destroy certain parts of it’s brain.
After the damaging the brain, Pierre allowed the animal to
recover and then restart the process by doing a bunch of tests
on it again.
o Human body is a lot like a machine.
Paul Broca (1824-1880)
Visited hospitals occasionally and noticed that many of the
patients had the same symptom with respect to a characteristic
that makes us human: the “Language”.
Questioned all the patients in a hospital if he (Paul) could break
open each and every one of the patients’ brains when they die.
o “Production of Language”.
To conclude Do we have souls?
According to scientists and philosophical thinkers; we, as
humans consists of a lot of material and that part should
behave according to natural laws.
Why Germany?
Pre-World War 1 Germany.
Very strong economical country.
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