• Argued that animals have no souls and that humans are
dualistic creatures; being able to have a “machine” part like the
animals. Meaning a part of us is just like the animals but we
also have a soul that can control the machinery; that is the only
difference between humans and animals.
• During the inventions of the pressure plates and hydraulics;
Rene stepped on a pressure plate as he was approaching the
statue of Diana causing water to flow through from behind the
statue. Since there was another statue blocking the way of the
hydraulic, the force of the water pushed the statue on to Rene’s
path shocking him.
o Non-living objects have a soul.
John Locke (1632-1704)
• Mind is Machine - Argued that humans are fully machines,
unlike Rene’s dualistic view.
• La Table Rassa – That we are born a blank slate that life
makes us who we are.
• Empiricism – Knowledge that only comes from a source
acquired by means of experimentations & observations.
James Mill (1773-1836)
• Materialism – Notion that we are completely and utterly
Luigi Galvani (1737-1798)
• Argued that we (humans) are partially machines;
• Meaning electrical stimulation to the muscle is enough to make
it contract in order to produce animation.
• The ability to make a dead object move because of
“electrochemical” meaning being able to take advantage of
chemical reactions through introduction of electrical energy.
Johannes Muller (1801-1858)