PSYA01H3 Study Guide - Fall 2018, Comprehensive Midterm Notes - Wilhelm Wundt, Voluntarism Philosophy, Vocal Folds

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School
Department
Course
PSYA01H3
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE
Fall 2018
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Lecture Notes
Humans saw themselves as spirits in a physical world
Thought to be spiritual, not physical/material
Therefore could not be studied by science
To pursue something scientifically, it must be assumed that the behaviour conforms to some
sort of natural laws, laws that can eventually be understood
Back in the day:
Many things had souls
Four categories that everything fit into: earth, air, fire, water
Animism: the idea of attributing a soul to inanimate objects (also plants and natural
phenomena)
Descartes:
Motion with intention≠soul
Animals dont have souls
Complex biological machine that is just responding to environmental cues
Vivisection: cut a living thing into sections while its still alive
Unethical
Descartes argued for vivisection as animals aren't alive
Imagine near 401 and a car is going too fast and the person isnt paying attention until
they see that there is a stop sign and slam the brakes
The car starts to squeal and scream and shudders but the car is not alive
Much like an animal should you nail it to a board
Descartes said that you should cut the vocal cords first so that you dont hear the
screaming
Controversy about what descartes truly believed
Cartesian Dualism-human behaviour is influenced by two things: physical (like the machine-
biological machinery) and mental (soul-capable of controlling the machine)
Therefore we could now study the physical part of a human
Locke:
Thought that minds were also machines
Humans were completely physical
Had no word for this idea
Tabula Rasa: blank slate
Create yourself
Your self is made through memories
You are never truly complete until death
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Nature vs Nurture stemmed from this idea
Coined the term of empiricism
Mill:
Created a word Lockes ideas: materialism
Materialism- we are completely physical beings with no spiritual component
Galvani:
Static electricity
Joordens changed example to batteries
Frog leg, just the leg
Took static electricity to the leg and it moves
Looking at how muscles react to electrical stimuli
He can control the machine with electricity
Essentially the leg is a biological machine that could be operated without a soul
For a long time, humans thought themselves better than the physical world around them
Thought they were completely distinct and spiritual
Until ppl like Rene brought forth an idea that humans are part machine/physical part
Spiritual
Biologists brought forth the proof needed to back this idea
Johannes muller
looked at how nerves worked
In a sense they are wiring
The doctrine of specific nerve endings
Pierre Florens
Ablation studies
Destruction studies
Destroyed a part of a rat brain and did this with a lot of different brain parts
Took a healthy rat and made it do a bunch of stuff and then damage some part of the
brain before making it to do the same things again to see what changed/broke
Contusion on the left side of the brain made it paralyzed on the left side of the
brain
Tissue at the back of the brain made it blind
Brain mapping
Paul Broca
Medical doctor
Ran into patients with the same odd behaviour
They could understand speech perfectly well but could not produce speech very
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