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PSYA01H3 Study Guide - Naturalistic Observation, Null Hypothesis, Karl Lashley

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Steve Joordens

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#1 1. The placebo effect is when a patient is given a medically ineffective treatment but
who will report a perceived or actual improvement in a medical condition. This is
considered to be part of what kind of medicine?
Ans: psychosomatic (modern physician and scientists attribute placebo
effect to the patient’s belief in treatment)
2. Ren is a hardworking school councilor who sees student every day. She helps
them with their problems by focusing on the unique aspects of each person she
sees and sees the person for who they are in an emphatic and non-judgemental
way. While not strictly seeing patients, we can say that Ren uses which
perspective in psychology?
Ans: Humanistic (unique aspect of each individual, each persons freedom
to act, his/her rational thought, and the belief that humans are fundamentally
different than other animals)
3. Adam conducts an experiment on sleeping habits in his laboratory, and finds some
interesting result. What is one major shortcoming of using this method?
Ans: Result generated in laboratories does not always relate the real-world
4. When Leo studies behavior, he always asks how the upbringing, financial
situation, and culture of that person influences their actions in the experiments
that he runs. This is an example of focusing on ________________ factors.
Ans: social (family, peers, ethnicity and culture)
5. “If you’ve ever lost a loved one to cancer, then you know the pain like no other.
Raise awareness and donate to X Cancer Research”. While this may not be in a
very scientific setting and while it may be for a very noble cause, this kind of
advertising is using an aspect of thinking that those trained in critical thinking can
avoid. This specific skills is referring to _________________.
Ans: avoidance of overly emotional thinking
6. Whenever product advertisements are shown to the public, the focus is to
accentuate the positive and attenuate the negative. AMAZING, they would say,
when really it isn’t. As a critical thinker, one should exercise _____________ to
avoid being scammed when told untrue information.
Ans: cautious skepticism
7. In 2014, scientists revealed very hopeful news that the Ozone layer (which was
being destroyed by CFC’s decades ago and whose use was internationally banned)
has been recovering and that the hole that was present is shrinking. Someone who
asks “how is this important to the world at large?” is focusing on which aspect of
scientific literacy?
Ans: Application (focus on why this scientific knowledge is relevant and
how it can be utilized by the community)
8. Iwa was reading about Sir Francis Galton and his work on ______________, a
combination of ability, morality and achievement. Sir Galton’s opinion that
eminence can be trained to heredity was a consequence of _____________, a
common mistake during his time.

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Ans: eminence; generalization
9. What is the difference between a correlational study and an experiment?
Ans: Correlational study – shows the strength of relationships between
Experiment – test for cause-and-effect relationship
10. Terrence is an undergraduate student who is helping his professor finish a study
on rat behavior. He meticulously observes the rats and catalogues their actions,
developed a reason based on past work on what it means and why they do it, and
is using all this to come up with prediction on what they will do next. Terrence is
thus using the _________________.
Ans: Scientific method (employs research through collecting observation,
developing theories and using the theories to make predictions)
11. Vaughan conducted a study looking at effects of Aspiring on the incidence of acne
in first-year students. He randomly sampler students into two groups, one took an
Aspirin every day for 2 weeks, and another group took a placebo everyday.
Vaughan analyzes his data, and finds that the means differ by 10 points between
the two groups, but there is a lot of overlap between the distributions of scores. Is
it likely that the two groups are significantly different? Why?
Ans: No, because there is too much overlap between the distributions of
12. According to lecture, Rene Descartes, there is such a thing as Cartesian dualism
and that human were greatly impacted by this. In his view, humans were
Ans: biological machines that have souls when then controls the machine
to make us move and function
13. What is the goal of a power analysis?
Ans: Calculate effect sizes
14. Dr. Zuko sets up an experiment to examine the effect of shampoo on the waste
excretion of beetles. To do that, one group of beetles swims in shampoo, while
the other group swims in water. Dr. Zuko then measures how many poop pellets
the beetles produce. What is the independent variable?
Ans: Whether the beetles swam in shampoo/water
Independent variable – variable that you have control over, what
you can choose and manipulate.
Dependent variable – what you measure in the experiment and
what is affected during the experiment
15. What are three main areas of ethnical animal treatment that are emphasize by
Ans: basic care of laboratory animals; pain can be justified by the
potential benefits of the research; minimization of pain/discomfort
16. As a psychiatrist, Jelum would often say that one must looks at the whole of
perception instead of looking at it in parts. Based on this, she probably prescribes
to __________ which is almost opposite to ______________.
Ans: Gestalt psychology (focus on the whole of perception and
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