PSYA01H3 Study Guide - Siamese Fighting Fish, Operant Conditioning Chamber, Classical Conditioning

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Published on 3 Aug 2012
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYA01H3
CHAPTER 7: LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR
Learning: adaptive process in which tendency to perform particular behaviour is changed
by experience
Performance: behavioural change produced by internal changes brought about by learning
(evidence for learning, but imperfect)
HABITUATION
Orienting response: any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory
organs towards the source of a novel stimulus
Habituation: simplest form of learning, learning to not respond to an unimportant event
that occurs repeatedly
George Humphrey showed this in early psych textbook, experiment of tapping glass plate of
snails and withdrawing into their shells
Rankin experiments on worm from class Nematoda. Same as snails but still reflexes to heat
showing its not fatigue that causes it. Does with only 302 neurons in nervous system
Most common is short-term habituation if you tap snail shell few days later, response will be
back
Animals with more complex nervous system capable of long term habituation i.e. hunting dog
not responding to gunshots even between hunting seasons, and noises in new house keeping
people awake
When stimuli presented quick and large, short term, small and spaced out, long term. Different
part of nervous system produces each.
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
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Classical conditioning: process by which response normally elicited by one stimulus (UCS
unconditioned stimulus) comes to be controlled by another stimulus as well (CS conditional
stimulus)
Pavlov’s Serendipitous Discovery
Pavlov a Russian physiologist, chief ambition to discover neural mechanisms controlling
glandular secretions during digestion
Originally, placed dried food powder in dog’s mouth and collected saliva from tube, after several
testings, dogs started salivating at sight of assistant, Pavlov aimed to find out why dogs started
salivating at unrelated stimulus
Sequence and timing of events important factors, food must immediately follow bell
Unconditional stimulus (UCS): stimulus that naturally elicits reflexive response such as
salivation
Unconditioned Response (UCR): a response such as salivation caused by a UCS
Conditional Stimulus (CS): stimulus that because of its repeated association with the UCS
eventually elicits a conditional response (CR)
Conditional Response(CR): response elicited by the CS
The Biological Significance of Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning accomplishes two things: 1) ability to learn to recognize stimuli that
predicts occurance of an important event to make appropriate response faster, {Hollis - Siamese
fighting fish, if given signal that male fish approaching, more likely to win, if female, more
likely to mate faster and produce more babies}
2)stimuli that were unimportant gain important properties and able to modify behaviour
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Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
Acquisition: the time during which a CR first appears and increases in frequency
Single pairing of CS with UCS not sufficient for learning to take place, only repeated pairings
does the CR usually appear
Two important factors that influence strength of CR: intensity of UCS and timing of the CS and
UCS, more intense UCS produce more rapid learning and the CR
0.5 second pause between CS and UCS is optimal
Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery
Extinction: elimination of a response that occurs when the CS is repeatedly presented
without being followed by the UCS
Extinction will only happen if the CS is still there, needs to learn that the stimulus won’t be
followed
Spontaneous recovery: after an interval of time, the reappearance of a response that had
previously been extinguished relearns it much faster
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination
Generalization: CR’s elicited by stimuli that resemble the CS used in training
Organism can also be taught to distinguish between similar stimuli
Discrimination: appearance of a CR when one stimulus is presented but not another
Discrimination training done by using two CSs during training, one always follows UCS, one
never does
Conditional Emotional Responses
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Document Summary

Learning: adaptive process in which tendency to perform particular behaviour is changed by experience. Performance: behavioural change produced by internal changes brought about by learning (evidence for learning, but imperfect) Orienting response: any response by which an organism directs appropriate sensory organs towards the source of a novel stimulus. Habituation: simplest form of learning, learning to not respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly. George humphrey showed this in early psych textbook, experiment of tapping glass plate of snails and withdrawing into their shells. Same as snails but still reflexes to heat showing its not fatigue that causes it. Does with only 302 neurons in nervous system. Most common is short-term habituation if you tap snail shell few days later, response will be back. Animals with more complex nervous system capable of long term habituation i. e. hunting dog not responding to gunshots even between hunting seasons, and noises in new house keeping people awake.

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