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Final

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
basilli

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Chapter 14: Personality pg 452
Psychodynamic Approach: Freud
Psychodynamic: is a term used to describe the notion that the mind is in a state of conflict
with instincts, reason and conscience
-all human behaviour is motivated by instinctual drives and supply psychic energy when
activated
-if something prevents the psychic energy, psychological disturbances will result
-instinctual drives are triggered by events in a persons life
-traumatic events may harm the desired state of psychic energy equilibrium
Unconscious: the inaccessible part of the mind
-unconscious emotion still exerts control over conscious thoughts and actions
-the mind represses the memories of traumatic events from being consciously discovered
*iceberg metaphor
The conscious mind hides the larger/more important part of the
mind; the unconscious mind
-the unconscious exerts influence on the conscious
Structure of the mind: Id, Ego, and Superego
-the consists of unconscious, preconscious and conscious elements
Unconscious: mental events we arent aware of (Id)
Conscious: mental events we are aware of
Preconscious: mental events that may become conscious through effort
Id: unconscious reservoir of libido (insistent, instinctual force thats unresponsive to the
demands of reality; primary source of motivation)
The id only obeys one rule- pleasure principal: obtain immediate gratification, whatever
form it may take
I.e. if youre hungry, id compels you to eat
-id was a source of unrestrained, uncivilized and ultimately harmful behaviour (chaos (
Ego: general manager of personality
-thinking planning and protective self
-controls and integrates behaviour
-mediates pressures of id, counter pressures of superego and demands of reality
-perception, cognition and memory perform the mediation
Ego follows reality principal: tendency to satisfy the demands of the id realistically, almost
always involving a compromise of the demands of the id and superego
-delay gratification of a drive until appropriate foal is located, using defence mechanisms
-some functions are unconscious
www.notesolution.com
Superego: divided into conscience and ego-ideal
Conscience: internalization of rules and restrictions of society- determines which behaviours
are permissible and punishes wrong doings with guilt
Ego-ideal: internalization of what a person would like to be (goals/ambitions) what society
values and what the person will strive to achieve
-mind is full of conflicts id demands gratification and super ego keeps drives in check by
way of internalized prohibitions: rules of behaviour learned in childhood that would protect
person from guilt theyd feel if the instinctual drives were allowed to express themselves
-result of conflict is compromise formation
-between demands of id and suppressive effects of superego
Dreams: dreams are motivated by repressed wishes and urges
Manifest content of a dream: the storyline; disguised version of the latent content of a
dream: hidden image produced by the unconscious
-latent content usually will be related to unexpressed wishes generated by instinctual
drives
Free association: methods where individual is asked to relax, clear mind of current
thoughts, and then report all thoughts, images, perceptions, feelings that come to mind
-Freud looked for particular patterns in patients’ report that reveal wishes, fears,
worries, that mind may be keeping hidden
Defence Mechanisms
-ego contains defence mechanisms: mental systems that become active whenever
unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with internalized prohibitions of
the superego
-ego uses one of its defences when signalled by state of anxiety produced by
intrapsychic conflict thus the ego is motivated to apply defence mechanisms
6 most frequently used defence mechanisms:
Repression: Freud believed to be most powerful
-responsible for actively keeping potentially threatening or anxiety-provoking
memories from being consciously discovered
-Minds active attempt to prevent memories from traumatic experiences from
reaching conscious awareness being unable to remember childhood sexual abuse
Reaction Formation: replacing and anxiety-provoking idea with its opposite
-behaving in a way thats opposite of how one really feels because true feelings
produce anxiety
-i.e. hating someone but acting friendly towards them
Projection: denying ones own unacceptable id-based desires and finding evidence of these
desires in others behaviours
-denial of ones unacceptable feelings and desires and finding them in others i.e.
denying negative feelings towards a person, but believing that person has negative feelings
toward you
-would be unacceptable to superego to initiate aggression but acceptable to take pre-
emptive action in self-defiance
Sublimination: diversion of psychic energy from an unacceptable drive to an acceptable one
i.e. one may feel strong sexual desire but outlet is unacceptable due to internalized
prohibitions then psychic energy finds another outlet such as an artistic one
www.notesolution.com
-channelling psychic energy from an unacceptable drive into a more acceptable one
Rationalization: creating an acceptable reason for behaviour that is actually preferred for a
less acceptable reason
i.e. saying you watch porn to understand its social implications when in fact youre
watching for sexual gratification acceptable but false excuse for unacceptable action
Conversion: manifestation of a psychic conflict in terms of physical symptoms
i.e. a psychic conflict causes you to develop symptoms of deafness/blindness to avoid
a person
-provision of an outlet for intrapsychic conflict in the form of a physical symptom
Psychosexual Theory: Freuds theory that personality development involves passing
through psychosexual stages: stages that involve seeking pleasure from specific parts of the
body called erogenous zones
-the theory helps explain personality disorders in terms of fixation: the continued
attachment of psychic energy to an erogenous zone due to incomplete passage through one
of the psychosexual stages
-if a person becomes fixated at a particular stage of development when he or she becomes
strongly attached to the erogenous zone involved in that stage
Stages
1.Oral stage: mouth is major erogenous zone due to reduction of hunger drive
-infants at this stage are dominated by id
-sexual instinctual drive finds an outlet in suck/swallow
-under gratification = personality traits related to dependency, clinging vine
-over gratification = aggressive personality
-both can cause fixation associated with smoking, hoarding, excessive eating
2.Anal stage: begins at 2nd year of life
-primary erogenous zone is anus due to pleasure derived from vacating a full bowel
movement
-toilet training delay in gratification
-deliberate management of id impulses (desire to vacate bowels as soon as urge develops)
-under gratification = compulsiveness, megalomania (need for power/control)
-balance of id and ego = creativity and emotional expressiveness
3.Phallic stage: at age 3, child realizes its pleasurable to play with penis/clitoris
-immature, strong sexual attachments to parent of opposite sex because mom
predominantly nurtures boy and dad predominantly nurtures girl
-opposite sex parents become focus of sensual pleasure for children
-focus of psychological and interpersonal conflicts called complexes
-children jealous of same sex parents relationship with opposite sex parent
Boy: hostility towards rival father and fear of father ultimate punishment = castration
Oedipus complex
Girl: penis envy girl imagines she can get penis by attachment to father compensates for
self-perceives weakness and penis is associated with power
Elektra complex
-boys and girls conflict resolved through identification
-children begin to imitate same sex parent in many ways and stat to idolize them fear and
envy are resolved and gender roles are learned
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Chapter 14: Personality pg 452 Psychodynamic Approach: Freud Psychodynamic: is a term used to describe the notion that the mind is in a state of conflict with instincts, reason and conscience -all human behaviour is motivated by instinctual drives and supply psychic energy when activated -if something prevents the psychic energy, psychological disturbances will result -instinctual drives are triggered by events in a persons life -traumatic events may harm the desired state of psychic energy equilibrium Unconscious: the inaccessible part of the mind -unconscious emotion still exerts control over conscious thoughts and actions -the mind represses the memories of traumatic events from being consciously discovered *iceberg metaphor The conscious mind hides the largermore important part of the mind; the unconscious mind -the unconscious exerts influence on the conscious Structure of the mind: Id, Ego, and Superego -the consists of unconscious, preconscious and conscious elements Unconscious: mental events we arent aware of (Id) Conscious: mental events we are aware of Preconscious: mental events that may become conscious through effort Id: unconscious reservoir of libido (insistent, instinctual force thats unresponsive to the demands of reality; primary source of motivation) The id only obeys one rule- pleasure principal: obtain immediate gratification, whatever form it may take I.e. if youre hungry, id compels you to eat -id was a source of unrestrained, uncivilized and ultimately harmful behaviour (chaos ( Ego: general manager of personality -thinking planning and protective self -controls and integrates behaviour -mediates pressures of id, counter pressures of superego and demands of reality -perception, cognition and memory perform the mediation Ego follows reality principal: tendency to satisfy the demands of the id realistically, almost always involving a compromise of the demands of the id and superego -delay gratification of a drive until appropriate foal is located, using defence mechanisms -some functions are unconscious www.notesolution.comSuperego: divided into conscience and ego-ideal Conscience: internalization of rules and restrictions of society- determines which behaviours are permissible and punishes wrong doings with guilt Ego-ideal: internalization of what a person would like to be (goalsambitions) what society values and what the person will strive to achieve -mind is full of conflicts id demands gratification and super ego keeps drives in check by way of internalized prohibitions: rules of behaviour learned in childhood that would protect person from guilt theyd feel if the instinctual drives were allowed to express themselves -result of conflict is compromise formation -between demands of id and suppressive effects of superego Dreams: dreams are motivated by repressed wishes and urges Manifest content of a dream: the storyline; disguised version of the latent content of a dream: hidden image produced by the unconscious -latent content usually will be related to unexpressed wishes generated by instinctual drives Free association: methods where individual is asked to relax, clear mind of current thoughts, and then report all thoughts, images, perceptions, feelings that come to mind -Freud looked for particular patterns in patients report that reveal wishes, fears, worries, that mind may be keeping hidden Defence Mechanisms -ego contains defence mechanisms: mental systems that become active whenever unconscious instinctual drives of the id come into conflict with internalized prohibitions of the superego -ego uses one of its defences when signalled by state of anxiety produced by intrapsychic conflict thus the ego is motivated to apply defence mechanisms 6 most frequently used defence mechanisms: Repression: Freud believed to be most powerful -responsible for actively keeping potentially threatening or anxiety-provoking memories from being consciously discovered -Minds active attempt to prevent memories from traumatic experiences from reaching conscious awareness being unable to remember childhood sexual abuse Reaction Formation: replacing and anxiety-provoking idea with its opposite -behaving in a way thats opposite of how one really feels because true feelings produce anxiety -i.e. hating someone but acting friendly towards them Projection: denying ones own unacceptable id-based desires and finding evidence of these desires in others behaviours -denial of ones unacceptable feelings and desires and finding them in others i.e. denying negative feelings towards a person, but believing that person has negative feelings toward you -would be unacceptable to superego to initiate aggression but acceptable to take pre- emptive action in self-defiance Sublimination: diversion of psychic energy from an unacceptable drive to an acceptable one i.e. one may feel strong sexual desire but outlet is unacceptable due to internalized prohibitions then psychic energy finds another outlet such as an artistic one www.notesolution.com
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