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PSYA01H3 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: B. F. Skinner, Psychosomatic Medicine, Scientific Literacy

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Steve Joordens
Study Guide

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Appeal to Authority: Expertise is not actually evidence; “expert” describes the person making the claim,
not the claim itself. It is entirely possible that the expert is mistaken, dishonest, overpaid, or misquoted.
An independent variable is the variable that the experimenter manipulates to distinguish between two
or more groups. In this case, the independent variable is whether the beetles swam in shampoo or
Phrenology: The logic behind phrenology was based on empiricism. If certain people had more
pronounced areas in their skull and exhibited certain personalities, then as more data was collected,
patterns would emerge and so generalizations were done. We now know that this notion is extremely
silly but at the time, it was very popular and supported by a lot of people (even those in the scientific
Cartesian dualism refers to his idea that there are two fundamental kinds of substance; mental and
material. Humans in his mind, had biological machines for bodies but we also had souls that controlled
us from a mental plane that allowed us to be more than other animals.
Empiricism is a philosophical tenet that knowledge comes through experience and that seeing is
believing. Whatever we see or measure should be observable by anyone else that follows the same
A variable is anything that can take on multiple values.
A measure demonstrates reliability when it provides consistent and stable answers across multiple
observations and points in time.
A correlational study shows the strength of relationships between variables, whereas an experiment
tests for cause-and-effect relationships.
Validity refers to the degree to which an instrument or procedure actually measures what it claims to
Critical thinking involves cautious skepticism. Constantly being wary about just accepting facts is a
healthy practice to ensure that you avoid being tricked into making an incorrect or hasty decision. At
the same time, do not be close-minded that you end up discrediting everything, despite some evidence
being presented that might warrant more consideration.
Scientific literacy is the ability to understand, analyze, and apply scientific information. Application is
one component of it that focuses on why this scientific knowledge is relevant and how it can be utilized
by the community.
A positive correlation has a positive value, but a negative correlation has a negative value.
Gestalt psychologists focus on the whole of perception and experience, rather than its parts which is
instead the focus of structuralism.
Gestalt is a German word that refers to the complete form of an object. It emphasizes the focus onto
the whole of perception and experience, rather than look at them individually.
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