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PSYA01H3 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Swear Jar, Conditioned Taste Aversion, Reinforcement

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Steve Joordens
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1. You want to quit smoking, so you sit at home and give yourself a shock every time
you reach for a cigarette. Your smoking decreases. However, when you go out with
your friends, your smoking return to the same level. This is an example of ___
1. stimulus discrimination
1.1. Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism learns to
respond to one original stimulus but not to new stimuli that may be
similar to the original stimulus.
2. John’s family has a ‘swear jar’. Every time someone in the family swears, she or he
has to put a dollar in the jar. This is an example of ____
1. operant conditioning
1. Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behaviour is influence by
consequences. In this specific example, family members swearing behaviours
influence (or decreased) by taking away money. Specifically, this is an
example of negative punishment
3. In Pavlov's classical condition of salvation experiment, the researchers set thee
conditional stimulus (CS) a 1200-hertz tone, which is the only sound that is paired
with food. The researchers might produce 1100 or 1300 hertz of tones as well, but
no pair them with food. Soon the dog will salivate in response to the 1200-hertztone,
but much less to other tones. This phenomenon is called _____
1. Discrimination
1.1. Discrimination occurs when an organism learns to respond to
the one original stimulus but not to new stimuli that may be similar to
the original stimulus
3. EEG signals during sleep move through how many different stages?
1. 4
3. Tina is a cancer patient. One day before she went in for a chemotherapy treatment,
the nurse gave her a distinctive food to eat. After the treatment, she could not stand
that food. This is typical example of ____. Choose the best answer
1. Conditioned taste aversion
1.1. Acquired dislike or disgust of a food or drink because it was
paired with illness is known as conditioned taste aversion.
3. Chris is riding a train through Denmark, and out the window a far away castle seems
to move slowly whoosh by at high speed. What is the name of this phenomenon?
1. Motion Parallax
1.1. P155
3. Ada submits her Peer Scholar paper on time because she does not want to lose
point for late work. This is an example of
1. Avoidance learning
1.1. Avoidance learning is a specific type of negative reinforcement
that removes the possibility that a stimulus will occur. In this specific
example. Ada hands in her work on time to avoid losing points for late
3. As a consequence for misbehaving, many parents use ‘time out’ so that the children
will lose their freedom to play. How does it affect children’s behaviour according to
the learning theory?
1. It removes a stimulus to decrease bad behaviour
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1.1. This is an example of negative punishment, which occurs when
a behaviour decreases because it removes or diminishes a particular
stimulus. In this case, parents take away the children’s freedom to be
engaged in other activities to decrease their bad or naughty behaviour
3. Why are humans biologically prepared to fear snakes makes but not guns?
1. Guns are a more recent addition to our evolutionary history compared to
1.1. Over time, humans have evolved a strong predisposition to fear
an animal that has a long history of causing severe injury or death.
The survival advantage has gone to people who quickly earned to
avoid animals such as snakes. The same is not true for guns which
are relatively new in our species’ history. This phenomenon is known
as preparedness - the biological predisposition to rapidly learn a
response to a particular class of stimuli
3. Who conditioned an 11-month old child known as “little Albert” to fear white rats?
1. Watson and Rayner
1.1. Watson and Rayner conditioned an 11 month old child know as
“little albert” to fear white rats. Watson and Raynor reported that Albert
quickly associated the rat with the startling sound, the child soon
showed a conditioned emotional response just to the rat
3. Deja vu is the experience of
1. the feeling of having been in a situation that is impossible or unlikely to occu
1.1. The first time you walked into the lecture hall, you immediately
felt as though you had already been there; even though you’re
absolutely sure you’ve never been there before
3. When a drug user develops a routine, the needle can become the ____, whereas the
body’s preparation for the drug in response to the presence of the needle is the ___
1. conditioned stimulus, conditioned response
1.1. Classical conditioning explain some drug-related phenomenon.
Cue that accompany drug use can become conditioned stimuli. For
Example, a cigarette lighter, the smell of tobacco smoke or the
presence of another smoker. In this case, the needle associated with
drugs is the conditioned stimulus; corresponding, the body’s response
to the presence of the CS is the conditioned response (CR)
3. In a psychology experiment, the subject receives a slight electric shock when they
get an answer wrong. This is an example of:
1. positive punishment
1.1. Positive punishment is a process in which a behaviour
decreases in frequency because it was followed by a particular,
usually unpleasant stimulus. In this specific example, the subject
receives the unpleasant electric shock so that their behaviour of
getting the wrong answer decreases
3. Among the four types of reinforcement schedules, ______ leads to generate the
most vigorous and the highest rate of responding
1. variable ratio schedule
1.1. The upward trajectory of responding is the steepest for
variable-ratio schedule, which shows this type of schedule is featured
by vigorous responding. In addition animal studies showed that this
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