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Ch. 7 notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Ch. 7 Learning and Behaviour
- Our behaviour is changeable in response to
experience
- but there are conditions
Learning: an adaptive process in which
experience changes the tendency to perform a
particular behaviour
-Cannot be observed directly but inferred
from changes in behaviour
-Not all changes in behaviour caused by
learning
- experience alters the structure and chemistry of
the brain
the response of the nervous system to
subsequent events also alters
Performance: the behavioural change (new
behaviour) produced by internal change
-Evidence that learning has take place
-Evidence is imperfect because fatigue, and
motivation also affect behaviour
Three kinds of learning: habituation, classical
conditioning, and operant conditioning.
Habituation
Orienting response: sound heard...become
alert...turn head
Habituation: simplest form of learning:
learning not to respond to an unimportant even
that occurs repeatedly
- Animal: with very primitive nervous systems
are capable of habituation (Snails)
- Evolutionary perspective of habituation: saves
energy (not responding)
Short term Habituation: temporary, simplest
form,
-Stimuli(quick cycls)..respond..x100..rapid
habituation.
-Stimuli... no respond
-Stimuli stopped for period of time
-Stimuli... respond... x100... REhabituation
Long-term habituation: animals w more complex
nrvous systms
-Stimuli(spaced out)..respond..x100..slow
habituation.
-Stimuli... no respond
-Stimuli stopped for period of time
-Stimuli... no respond still
Classical conditioning
- learning about conditions that predict the
occurrence of a significant event
- much of our behaviour is acquired through
clsscl cndtnng
Ex. reaction to scary music in a horror movie
Pavlovs Serendipitous Discovery
Roentgen: Discovered X-rays
British scientist: had made the same discovery
-Assistant reported: photographic film
tended to get fogged next to the lab
uranium sample...
-Told assistant to move film
- Missed Noble peace prize
Ivan Pavlon (1904, Russian Physiologist)
Ambition: discover neural mechanisms
controlling glandular secretions during
digestion
- Measured secretions during course of
meal
-Sidetracked! serendipitous discovery..
-Why did dog start salivating at the sight
of food?
-Suspected: salivation triggered by stimuli
-Designed experiments...
-Inexperience dog harnessed... bell
ringed... food...
-After a while... the sound of the bell
caused salivation
Classical Conditioning: process in which a
response normally elicited by one stimulus (UCS)
comes to be controlled by another stimulus (CS)
-Sequence and timing of events are
important factors
-UCS... UCR... CS... UCS.... UCR 
CS... CR...
www.notesolution.com
The biological Significance of Classical
Conditioning
- responses that occur naturally may come to be
controlled by other stimuli ex. bell salivation
Two functions of classical conditioning:
1.The ability to learn to recognize stimuli
that predict the occurrence of an
important event allows the learner to
make the appropriate response faster and
more effectively
-Learning that occurs with a biologically
relevant UCS is also more resistant to
subsequent modification
2.Stimuli previously unimportant acquire
some of the properties of important
stimuli with which they have been
associated and thus become able to modify
behaviour
ex1 Stack of money vs. Stack of paper
ex2 Pigeons... peck at CS: flashing
light...expecting food
ex3 Worms migrate to specific ion source
paired with food
Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning
(CC)
- several interesting phenomena about classical
conditioning
Acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery,
stimulus generalization, discrimination.
Acquisition: time during which conditional
response first appears and increases in frequency
(learning phase of CC)
- CC requires many CS-UCS parings for learning
to occur
ex tone-puff of air... blink
2 factors that influence the strength of the CR
1. Intensity of UCS (more intensity=more
rapid learning)
2.Timing of the CS and UCS (short timing...
more ^)
Extinction: the elimination of a response that
occurs when CS is repeatedly presented without
being followed by the UCS
- Extinctions only occurs when CS no longer
signals UCS
- If neither stimulus is presented extinction will
not occur
(participant learns that CS no longer represents
UCS)
Spontaneous recovery: after an interval of
time, the reappearance of a response that had
previously been extinguished.
Generalization: CRs elicited by stimuli that
resemble the CS used in training. eg. Dog
salivates when hearing buzzer instead of the
normal bell
Discrimination: the appearance of a CR when
one stimulus is presented (CS+) but not another
(CS-)
-Used to teach an organism to distinguish
b/w two similar but different stimuli
Conditional Emotional Responses
- many stimuli are able to arouse emotional
responses: fear, disgust, contempt, anger,
sadness, tenderness, longing...
- these stimuli used to have no special
significance
- the paring of these stimuli with other that elicit
an emo response leads to acquisition of CC for
each stimuli
- Ex. ppl sorted through 3 photographs of
individuals of European origin and
reported which one they found neutral...
- each nutral was then re-rated while
smelling 3 cloths
- photo linked with good smell was chosen
- Therefore, CC may play a role in the
development of personal likes and dislikes
Phobias: unreasonable fear of specific
objects/situations: insects, animals, or enclosed
spaces, learned through CC
-In the past... person with phobia may
have been exposed with new object in
www.notesolution.com
conjunction with a stimulus that elicited
pain or fear phobia
- CC can occur w/o direct experience with CS and
UCS
Ex. mother fears snakes... child fears snakes due
to mother
- Imaginary episodes we picture (books/movies)
UCS can provide CSs that lead to real
conditional emotional responses
What is Learned in Classical Conditioning?
- for CC to occur, the CS must be a reliable
predictor of UCS
- a neutral stimulus becomes a CS only when:
- The CS regularly occurs before
presentation of UCS
- The CS does not regularly occur when
UCS is not present
Blocking: the prevention of or decrease in
learning that occurs to a neutral CS when it is
conditioned in the presence of a previously
conditioned stimulus
-When there is already a CS, a new CS
paired with the old CS will be useless.
CS provides two types of information:
1.What: allows animals to learn that a
particular event is about to occur (they
have memory of the event)
-Ex. Blue garmish... less dominant...
trained with CS to respond for food...
when placed with dominant... they do
respond due to CC
-Therefore, it is not the UCR that
determines the CR but the memory of
what the CS predicts
-Ex. conditioning of the sexual behaviour
of male Japanese quail... quails were
shown CS (gray foam)... then allowed to
interact with females for 5 mins... CC
increased the interaction time spent with
females due to their memory of the
females...BUT memory can be altered by
satiation
2.When: is about the timing of the events
that determines 2 types of responses:
-Inhibitory conditional response: a
response tendency conditioned to a signal
that predicts the absence of UCS;
generally not observed directly but
assessed through other tests
-Specific CS codes that there will be no
UCS today
-Excitatory conditional response: a
response tendency conditioned to a signal
that the UCS is about to occur. Pavlovs
salivation response is an example of this
type of CR.
Operant Conditioning
- habituation and CC are forms of learning that
deal with the relations between one stimulus and
another
Operant conditioning: a form of learning in
which behaviour is affected by its consequences.
Favourable consequences strengthen the
behaviour, unfavourable consequences weaken
the behaviour
The Law of Effect
-Operant conditioning first discovered in
basement by Edward L. Thorndike
-Ex. hungry cat in a latched box... learns to
open box
- Law of effect: Thorndikes idea that
consequences of a behaviour determine
wether it is likely to be repeated
-Analogous to concept of natural selection
-Natural selection = determines which
member of species will survive and
reproduce
-Law of Effect = determines which
responses will survive and become part of
the organisms behavioural repertoire
-The ability to adjust behaviour is highly
adaptive
www.notesolution.com

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Description
- Stimuli(spaced out)..respond..x100..slow Ch. 7 Learning and Behaviour - Our behaviour is changeable in response to habituation. - Stimuli... no respond experience - but there are conditions - Stimuli stopped for period of time - Stimuli... no respond still Learning: an adaptive process in which experience changes the tendency to perform a Classical conditioning particular behaviour - Cannot be observed directly but inferred - learning about conditions that predict the occurrence of a significant event from changes in behaviour - much of our behaviour is acquired through - Not all changes in behaviour caused by clsscl cndtnng learning Ex. reaction to scary music in a horror movie - experience alters the structure and chemistry of the brain Pavlovs Serendipitous Discovery the response of the nervous system to Roentgen: Discovered X-rays subsequent events also alters British scientist: had made the same discovery Performance: the behavioural change (new - Assistant reported: photographic film behaviour) produced by internal change tended to get fogged next to the lab - Evidence that learning has take place uranium sample... - Evidence is imperfect because fatigue, and - Told assistant to move film motivation also affect behaviour Three kinds of learning: habituation, classical - Missed Noble peaceprize Ivan Pavlon (1904, Russian Physiologist) conditioning, and operant conditioning. Ambition: discover neural mechanisms controlling glandular secretions during Habituation digestion Orienting response: sound heard...become - Measured secretions during course of alert...turn head meal Habituation: simplest form of learning: - Sidetracked! serendipitous discovery.. learning not to respond to an unimportant even - Why did dog start salivating at the sight that occurs repeatedly of food? - Animal: with very primitive nervous systems - Suspected: salivation triggered by stimuli are capable of habituation (Snails) - Designed experiments... - Evolutionary perspective of habituation: saves - Inexperience dog harnessed... bell energy (not responding) ringed... food... Short term Habituation: temporary, simplest - After a while... the sound of the bell form, caused salivation - Stimuli(quick cycls)..respond..x100..rapid Classical Conditioning: processin which a habituation. response normally elicited by one stimulus (UCS) - Stimuli... no respond comes to be controlled by another stimulus (CS) - Stimuli stopped for period of time - Sequence and timing of events are - Stimuli... respond... x100... REhabituation important factors Long-term habituation: animals w more complex - UCS... UCR... CS... UCS.... UCR nrvous systms CS... CR... www.notesolution.com
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