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Ch. 8 notes

12 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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Ch. 8 Memory
Overview of Memory
Learning = experience change in behaviour
(brain plasticity)
Memory: the cognitive processes of encoding,
storing, and retrieving information
Encoding: the active process of putting stimulus
information into a form that can be used by our
memory
Storage retrieval: the active processes of locating
and using info stored in memory
- info stored in memory for later use
- storage of info is not directly available
Donald Hebb: suggested...
- brain remembered information in 2
different ways:
Dual Trace Theory: the brain either kept
traces of experience in the active state or in
the built in structural state
- Information that was active was in this
state because neurons were firing
continuously due to feedback circuits of
neurons
- repeated firing just strengthened the
synaptic efficiency lead to structural
changes in neurons
- structural change was present even after
activity
ceased...
Therefore, info can be active or latent (built
in)
Richard Atkinson, Richard Shiffrin: proposed...
modal model
- memory takes three forms: sensory, short, long
term
- first two are active states of information, third is
latent
Sensory memory: memory in which
representations of the physical features of stimulus
are stored for a very brief time
- ex. sparkler memory.... visual experience leaves
an image...
-Function: just hold info about stimulus long
enough for it to become part of short term
memory... +/- 2 seconds
-Not perception, just holds info to perceive
Short-term memory: immediate memory for
stimuli that have just been perceived. Capacity is
limited in terms of: # items and Time
Long-term memory: memory in which info is
represented on a permanent or near permanent
basis and has no limits.
Ex. ppl shown 10 000 slides.... still remembered
weeks later
- some psychologists argue that this modal model of
memory distinction; sensory, short-term, long-term
are not accurate, there is no real distinction
between them... memory just has different phases
of a continuous process.
Ex. cars can be made at different factories... or cars
can be made in one factory... end product is still a
functioning car...
- this chapter will follow the first model but
psychologists know that memory is more complex
then this
Two types of sensory memory psychs have
focused on:
1. Iconic Memory (visual sensory memory)
Iconic Memory: a form of sensory memory that
holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just
been perceived (visible persistence)
Experiment to study this form of memory:
- 9 letters flashed on screen for 50
miliseconds
- ppl had to recall all letters (whole-report
procedure)
- on avg. Ppl could only remember 5 letters
Was this limitation cuz of the capacity of
iconic memory?
Partial report procedure:
- 9 letters flashed in rows of 3 by 3
www.notesolution.com
- ppl had to read row indicated by some
sound
- when ppl were warned before-hand about
which row to look at, they were okay with
naming the letters...
- but when they had to recall a row after a
tone, they had to search their mental image
for the letters
- the ability to still easily recall letters from
memory indicated there was little difference
in having the letters physically in front of
than having the letters in memory
- when the delay between the flash of letters
and the tone was more than 1 seconds, ppl
had difficulty recalling ltrs
2. Echoic Memory (auditory sensory memory)
Echoic memory: a form of sensory memory for
sounds that have just been perceived
- when people talk, the beginning of the sound of
the words have to be stored until the end of the
word can be heard
- echoic memory holds a representation of the
initial sounds until the entire word has been heard.
- echoic memory can last up to 20 seconds and
allows us to recognize the sounds of our friends
voices on the phone
Short term or Working Memory
Encoding of information in the Short Term:
Interaction with the Long-term memory
- information can enter the short-term memory
from 2 different ways: from sensory memory or
from long-term memory
Working memory: memory for new information
and information retrieved from long-term memory
-Working memory represents a sort of
behaviour that takes place in our heads
-It lets us remember what we have just
perceived
-It lets us think about what we perceived in
terms of what we already know
Primary and Recency Effects
Free-recall task: some1 reads a whole bunch of
letters... you have to recall what they were and
write down as many as you remember
Primacy effect: the tendency to remember words
at the beginning of lists better (the words have
more time to be rehearsed)
Recency effect: the tendency to recall latter
information, the last words in a list (the words are
more fresh in our memory)
- Therefore, working memory is a type of
behaviour that takes place inside our head.
- Primacy and recency effects are important
because they show us the consequence of this
behaviour.
- memory is not a random process dumping random
stuff from the env into your head... it follows a
predictable pattern
- we cant observe working memory directly but we
can observe its consequences
The Limits of Working Memory (time and
capacity)
1. TIME:
Experiment:
- ppl presented with random consonants... ex.
JRG...
- then they had to count backward by 3 from a
three digit number
- the consonants remained accessible in memory
only for a few secs about 15-18 seconds
- unexpected distractions seriously disrupt working
memory...
Eg. If a phone rings.... working memory is no
longer 15-18 secs...
2. CAPACITY:
- the capacity does not depend on the number of
words...
- it depends on how much meaning the information
has
www.notesolution.com
- if the information is organized in a more
meaningful sequence, there is less to be
remembered
Chunking: a process by which information is
simplified by rules
-Once the rules are learned, info is easier to
learn
-Eg. CSTCBCRCMP... ugh!... easier: CST
CBC RCMP...
Varieties of Working Memory (phonological and
visual)
- so far working memory has been thought of as a
single thing
- evidence suggests that working memory can
contain a variety of sensory information:
- visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory,
and olfactory
- motor memories of movements that we
have just made
- provides the means by which we rehearse
movements that we are thinking about
making
- so... is all this info contained in 1 system
or are there several independent working
memories?
Beddeley (1993, 2000):
- suggested that working memory consists of
several components
- All these components are coordinated by a
central executive function
- One component maintains verbal
information (phonological working memory)
- Another retains memories of visual stimuli
(visual working memory)
- A third components might store more
general info: memory of non speech sound
(sound of friends voice on the phone), touch,
odours and etc.
- visually or acoustic(sound) stuff is stored verbally
- seeing, smelling, hearing... results in words
running in our head
Phonological Short-term memory: for verbal
information
- involves the auditory system and the motor
system
- ph-on-e means sound and voice
- Visually encoded information can quickly be
encoded acoustically (in sound)... wat we see... .we
code as sounds...
Experiment: visual info acoustic info (sound)
-Ppl were shown letters
-They had to then write them down
-The errors they made were acousticall
(sound related)
-Instead of V they wrote B...
Therefore, ppl read letters then code them
acoustically (hear them in their minds)
- because the errors seem to be acoustic, there may
also be a form of acoustical coding in our memory
- phonological memory (verbal info) may be
produced by activity in the auditory system
(circuits of neurons in the auditory association
cortex)
Subvocal articulation: an unvoiced speech
utterance
-Even if no activity is occurring, neural
circuits that normally control speech may
still be active
Picture things in our heads = Visual association
cortex
Imagine saying something = Motor association
cortex
- even though this stuff is imagined... the neurons
are still the same ones that would be active if it
was really happening
- people may use BOTH acoustic and articulatory
codes: they hear a word and feel themselves saying
it in their heads
Evidence of phonological Short term memory:
Conduction Ahpasia: an inability to remember
words that are heard, although they usually can be
understood and responded to appropriately.
- caused by damage to Wernickes and Broncas
area regions in the left parietal lobes
www.notesolution.com

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Description
- ex. sparkler memory.... visual experience leaves Ch. 8 Memory Overview of Memory an image... - Function: just hold info about stimulus long Learning = experience change in behaviour enough for it to become part of short term (brain plasticity) memory... +- 2 seconds Memory: the cognitive processes of encoding, - Not perception, just holds info to perceive storing, and retrieving information Short-term memory: immediate memory for Encoding: the active process of putting stimulus stimuli that have just been perceived. Capacity is information into a form that can be used by our limited in terms of: # items and Time memory Long-term memory: memory in which info is Storage retrieval: the active processes of locating represented on a permanent or near permanent and using info stored in memory basis and has no limits. - info stored in memory for later use Ex. ppl shown 10 000 slides.... still remembered - storage of info is not directly available weeks later Donald Hebb: suggested... - some psychologists argue that this modal model of - brain remembered information in 2 memory distinction; sensory, short-term, long-term different ways: are not accurate, there is no real distinction Dual Trace Theory: the brain either kept between them... memory just has different phases traces of experience in the active state or in of a continuous process. the built in structural state Ex. cars can be made at different factories... or cars - Information that was active was in this can be made in one factory... end product is still a state because neurons were firing functioning car... continuously due to feedback circuits of - this chapter will follow the first model but neurons - repeated firing just strengthened the psychologists know that memory is more complex then this synaptic efficiency lead to structural changes in neurons Two types of sensory memory psychs have - structural change was present even after activity focused on: 1. Iconic Memory (visual sensory memory) ceased... Therefore, info can be active or latent (built Iconic Memory: a form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just in) been perceived (visible persistence) Experiment to study this form of memory: Richard Atkinson, Richard Shiffrin: proposed... modal model - 9 letters flashed on screen for 50 miliseconds - memory takes three forms: sensory, short, long - ppl had to recall all letters (whole-report term procedure) - first two are active states of information, third is - on avg. Ppl could only remember 5 letters latent Sensory memory: memory in which Was this limitation cuz of the capacity of iconic memory? representations of the physical features of stimulus are stored for a very brief time Partial report procedure: - 9 letters flashed in rows of 3 by 3 www.notesolution.com - ppl had to read row indicated by some Primary and Recency Effects sound Free-recall task: some1 reads a whole bunch of - when ppl were warned before-hand about letters... you have to recall what they were and which row to look at, they were okay with write down as many as you remember naming the letters... Primacy effect: the tendency to remember words - but when they had to recall a row after a at the beginning of lists better (the words have tone, they had to search their mental image more time to be rehearsed) for the letters Recency effect: the tendency to recall latter - the ability to still easily recall letters froinformation, the last words in a list (the words are memory indicated there was little difference more fresh in our memory) in having the letters physically in front of than having the letters in memory - Therefore, working memory is a type of - when the delay between the flash of letters behaviour that takes place inside our head. and the tone was more than 1 seconds, ppl - Primacy and recency effects are important had difficulty recalling ltrs because they show us the consequence of this behaviour. 2. Echoic Memory (auditory sensory memory) - memory is not a random process dumping random Echoic memory: a form of sensory memory for stuff from the env into your head... it follows a sounds that have just been perceived predictable pattern - when people talk, the beginning of the sound of - we cant observe working memory directly but we the words have to be stored until the end of the can observe its consequences word can be heard - echoic memory holds a representation of the The Limits of Working Memory (time and initial sounds until the entire word has been heard. capacity) - echoic memory can last up to 20 seconds and 1. TIME: allows us to recognize the sounds of our friends Experiment: voices on the phone - ppl presented with random consonants... ex. JRG... Short term or Working Memory - then they had to count backward by 3 from a Encoding of information in the Short Term: three digit number Interaction with the Long-term memory - the consonants remained accessible in memory - information can enter the short-term memory only for a few secs about 15-18 seconds from 2 different ways: from sensory memory or - unexpected distractions seriously disrupt working from long-term memory memory... Eg. If a phone rings.... working memory is no Working memory: memory for new information and information retrieved from long-term memory longer 15-18 secs... 2. CAPACITY: - Working memory represents a sort of behaviour that takes place in our heads - the capacity does not depend on the number of - It lets us remember what we have just words... perceived - it depends on how much meaning the information - It lets us think about what we perceived in has terms of what we already know www.notesolution.com
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