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Ch. 10 notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
Professor
basilli

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Ch. 10 Language
Languages are flexible systems that use symbols
to express meaning. True verbal ability
[language] is a social behaviour.
Focus of this chapter is to study how humans
begin learning language in the earliest stages of
life and how their language develops as they
reach adulthood.
Functions of language:
-Day-to-day communication
-A tool in our remembering and thinking
-Encode information in memory verbally
-Extension of our long-term memory
(writing notes)
-Enables us to think about very complex
and abstract issues by encoding them as
words and manipulating the words
according to logical rules
Spking, lstning, wrting, rding = behaviours we
can study
Linguists: study rules of language and describe
what we do when we speak or write... history of
languages...
Psycholinguistics: a branch of psychology
devoted to the study of verbal behaviour and are
more concerned with human cognition than
with the particular rules that describe language.
-They also study how adults use languages
and how verbal abilities interact with
other cognitive abilities
-How children acquire language
-How verbal behaviour develops and how
children learn to speak from their
interactions with adults
Speech and Comprehension
Through listening and reading we profit from
exp. of others
Through talking and writing we share results
of our exp.
Perception of Speech
Recognition of Speech
The auditory system performs an amazing task
and allows us to recognize speech sounds. There
are two types of sounds:
1.Human vocalization (Speech or Non-
speech :coughs chuckles)
2.Natural sounds
- the auditory cortex in the temporal lobes of the
brain, both left and right hemispheres respond
more when people hear human vocalizations then
when they hear natural sounds
- the left hemisphere plays a greater role in
analyzing the detailed information of speech
because the auditory area in the left hemisphere
showed a greater response to natural speech in
fMRI scans
What is detailed information?
First, the basic elements, phonemes of speech are
analyzed.
Phonemes: the minimum unit of sound that
conveys meaning in a particular language such
as /p/.
-The smallest units of sound that allow us
to distinguish the meaning of a spoken
word
-One distinction we can detect: voice onset
time
Voice onset time: the delay or length of time
b/w the initial sound of a consonant (such as the
puffing sound of the phoneme /p/) and the onset
of vibration of the vocal cords.
Note: a consonant is a speech sound that is
articulated (spoken) with complete or partial
closure of the vocal tract.
-We can distinguish b/w /p/ /b/ , /t/ /d/
and /k/ /g/ just by saying the sounds out
loud but we are not able to distinguish b/w
them if they are unvoiced and just mimed
www.notesolution.com
-The length of time b/w the puff of air and
vocal vibrations gives us the ability to
distinguish between these letters... voice
onset time...
- both hemispheres process auditory sensory
differences by distinguishing phonemes
- regions of the left auditory cortex specialize in
recognizing special aspects of speech
- some areas responded to Natural speech
and Computer distorted and unintelligible
speech
- some areas responded to intelligible but
lacking normal frequencies of human
speakers even if it was highly distorted
- the latter regions relies on information
that transcends (goes beyond) the
distortions of individual phonemes... so
this region is based on lager segments of
speech (syllables)
Experiment:
-The perception of a phoneme is affected by
the sounds that follow it... we recognize
speech sounds in pieces larger than
individual phonemes
-Phonemes are too small to make meaning
out of them... so they are combined to
make morphemes
Morphemes: the smallest units of meaning in
language
-Free morphemes: have meaning on its
own
-Bound morphemes: must be attached to
another morphemes to have meaning
-Ex. Fastest: /fast/ = free morphemes, /ist/=
bound m...
-Syntax of a particular language
determines how phonemes can be
combined to form morphemes
Recognition of Words in Continuous
Speech: The Importance of learning and
Context
Experiement: examine brainwave activity when
people listened to a continous string of sounds
-Sounds were composed of short syllabic
sounds spliced together:
babupudutabatutuibubabupubu
-Some of the sounds were taken from the
stream and designated as words: dutaba
-A special electrical signal called N100
wave appears shortly after people hear
the onset of a word
-When people learned the onset sounds as
words, they showed the N100 response
In addition to learning the units of speech, we
also learn its content. Context effects the
perception of words through top-down processing.
Cues in the environment helps us understand
what someone is saying Ex. I scream : Ice cream.
Even if the speech is not very good, we are able to
perceive from context through top-down
processing.
Understanding the Meaning of Speech
The meaning of a sentence is conveyed through:
-The words that are chosen
-The order in which the words are
combined
-The affixes attached to the beg/end of the
words
-The pattern of rhythm and emphasis of
the speaker
-The knowledge about the world shared
by the speaker and the listener
Syntax (grammar) We have to follow the rules of
a language if we want a listener to understand
our speech and use words the listener is familiar
with and combine them in specific ways. - All
languages have syntax and follow certain
principles.
www.notesolution.com
- Syntactical rules: a grammatical rule for a
certain language for combining words to form
phrases, clauses, and sentences.
- our understanding of syntax is perceived
automatically like learning to ride a bike and as
the syntax gets more complex, our brains become
more active.
- Syntactical rules are learned implicitly, and
later we can be taught about these rules and
recognize their applications
- patients with anterograde amnesia were able to
learn an artificial grammar even though they
couldnt learn new meanings
- different types of memory and brain
mechanisms are involved in learning syntax and
word meanings
Syntactical cues are signalled by:
These cues help us understand what ppl say,
1. Word order: A x’s B... A = agent, B= object
2. Word class: grammatical categories: nouns,
verbs, adjectives
3. Function(linkages) and content words(have
meanings)
Function word: a preposition, article, or other
word that conveys little of the meaning of a
sentence but is more important in specifying its
grammatical structure (a, the, to...)
Content word: a noun, verb, adjective or adverb
that conveys meaning (apple, rug, went, caught,
heavy, mysterious...)
4. Affixes: a sound or group of letters that is
added to the beginning(prefix) of a word or its
end (suffix) (-ed, -ing, -ly...)
5. Word meanings: semantics
Semantics: the meanings and the study of the
meanings represented by words. The function
words help us determine the syntax of a sentence
and the content words help us determine the
meaning... we can still determine the meaning of
a sentence if we remove function words. Man
placed wooden ladder tree climbed picked
apples...
6. prosody: the use of changes in
intonation(tone) and emphasis to convey meaning
in speech besides that specified by the particular
words: an important means of communication of
emotion
Relation b/w Semantics and Syntax
Deep structure: the essential meaning of a
sentence, without regard to the grammatical
features (surface structure) of the sentence that
are needed to express it in words.
-Newly formed sentences inside our brain
are represented in terms of their meaning
not grammatical structures
Surface structure: the grammatical features of
a sentence.
The distinction b/w surface structure and deep
structure is important because people with
conduction aphasia have difficulty expressing
sentences but they can understand them.
Knowledge of the World
Ex. I have learned a lot about the bars in town
yesterday. Do you have an aspirin? to
understand what the speaker means, the listener
must know something about bars so that we can
infer that the speaker has a headache from
drinking some beverages, which leads to
headaches...
Understanding speech also involves knowledge
about the world and about particular situations
that we may encounter.
Scripts: knowledge that specify various kinds of
events and interactions that people have
witnessed or have learned about from others.
-Once the speaker has established which
script is being referred to, the listener can
fill in the details
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Through talking and writing we share results Ch. 10 Language Languages are flexible systems that use symbols of our exp. to express meaning. True verbal ability [language] is a social behaviour. Perception of Speech Recognition of Speech Focus of this chapter is to study how humans The auditory system performs an amazing task and allows us to recognize speech sounds. There begin learning language in the earliest stages of life and how their language develops as they are two types of sounds: 1. Human vocalization (Speech or Non- reach adulthood. speech :coughs chuckles) 2. Natural sounds Functions of language: - Day-to-day communication - the auditory cortex in the temporal lobes of the brain, both left and right hemispheres respond - A tool in our remembering and thinking more when people hear human vocalizations then - Encode information in memory verbally when they hear natural sounds - Extension of our long-term memory - the left hemisphere plays a greater role in (writing notes) - Enables us to think about very complex analyzing the detailed information of speech because the auditory area in the left hemisphere and abstract issues by encoding them as words and manipulating the words showed a greater response to natural speech in fMRI scans according to logical rules Spking, lstning, wrting, rding = behaviours we What is detailed information? can study First, the basic elements, phonemes of speech are analyzed. Linguists: study rules of language and describe what we do when we speak or write... history of Phonemes: the minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language such languages... as p. - The smallest units of sound that allow us Psycholinguistics: a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour and are to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word more concerned with human cognition than - One distinction we can detect: voice onset with the particular rules that describe language. time - They also study how adults use languages Voice onset time: the delay or length of time and how verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilities bw the initial sound of a consonant (such as the puffing sound of the phoneme p) and the onset - How children acquire language - How verbal behaviour develops and how of vibration of the vocal cords. Note: a consonant is a speech sound that is children learn to speak from their interactions with adults articulated (spoken) with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Speech and Comprehension - We can distinguish bw p b , t d and k g just by saying the sounds out Through listening and reading we profit from exp. of others loud but we are not able to distinguish bw them if they are unvoiced and just mimed www.notesolution.com - The length of time bw the puff of air and Recognition of Words in Continuous vocal vibrations gives us the ability to Speech: The Importance of learning and distinguish between these letters... voice Context onset time... Experiement: examine brainwave activity when - both hemispheres process auditory sensory people listened to a continous string of sounds differences by distinguishing phonemes - Sounds were composed of short syllabic - regions of the left auditory cortex specialize in sounds spliced together: recognizing special aspects of speech babupudutabatutuibubabupubu - some areas responded to Natural speech - Some of the sounds were taken from the and Computer distorted and unintelligible stream and designated as words: dutaba speech - A special electrical signal called N100 - some areas responded to intelligible but wave appears shortly after people hear lacking normal frequencies of human the onset of a word speakers even if it was highly distorted - When people learned the onset sounds as - the latter regions relies on information words, they showed the N100 response that transcends (goes beyond) the In addition to learning the units of speech, we distortions of individual phonemes... so also learn its content. Context effects the this region is based on lager segments of perception of words through top-down processing. speech (syllables) Cues in the environment helps us understand Experiment: what someone is saying Ex. I scream : Ice cream. - The perception of a phoneme is affected by Even if the speech is not very good, we are able to the sounds that follow it... we recognize perceive from context through top-down speech sounds in pieces larger than processing. individual phonemes - Phonemes are too small to make meaning Understanding the Meaning of Speech out of them... so they are combined to The meaning of a sentence is conveyed through: make morphemes - The words that are chosen Morphemes: the smallest units of meaning in - The order in which the words are language combined - Free morphemes: have meaning on its - The affixes attached to the begend of the own words - Bound morphemes: must be attached to - The pattern of rhythm and emphasis of another morphemes to have meaning the speaker - Ex. Fastest: fast = free morphemes, ist= - The knowledge about the world shared bound m... by the speaker and the listener - Syntax of a particular language Syntax (grammar) We have to follow the rules of determines how phonemes can be a language if we want a listener to understand combined to form morphemes our speech and use words the listener is familiar with and combine them in specific ways. - All languages have syntax and follow certain principles. www.notesolution.com
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