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Ch. 11 notes

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA01H3
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basilli

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Ch. 11 Intelligence and
Thinking
Any definition of intelligence depends on varying
cultures based on a different range of necessary skills
required for survival in that culture.
Theories of Intelligence
Is intelligence a global trait or composed of separate,
independent abilities?
Although psychs have devised tests that give a
single number, IQ, it does not mean that
intelligence is a single general characteristic.
Hockey player example trying to play baseball
but couldnt. Pg.327.
There are 2 controversial views on intelligence:
1.Specific abilities are totally independent
2.One general factor influences all abilities
Spearmans Two factor theory of
intelligence
Charles Spearman: Proposed that a person
performance on a test is determined by two factors:
g factor: a factor of intelligence that is common to all
intellectual tasks and includes the following:
1.Apprehension of experience: ppls abilities to
perceive and understand what they experience
2.Eduction of relations: the ability to perceive
the relations from given facts
3.Eduction of correlates: the ability to apply a
rule inferred from on cases to a similar case
Ex. doctor is to patient as lawyer is
to...
s factor: a factor of intelligence that is specific to a
particular task.
Where does empirical evidence for this theory come
from?
From correlations among various tests of
particular intellectual abilities
This is how it works:
Suppose we administer 10 different tests of
intellectual abilities to a group of people
If each test measures a separate independent
ability, the scores of the ppl on one test will be
unrelated to the scores on other tests, the
correlations amongst the tests will be 0
It the tests measure the same abilities, they
the scores will be related and the correlation
will be 1.0
In reality, most of these tests are moderately
correlated so a person who scores well on a
vocab test tends to score well on arithmetic
and etc. These correlations tend to range
from .30 to .70
So we can conclude that a general factor
accounted for these moderate correlations
A persons score on a particular test does
depend on 2 things, the persons specific
ability and the persons general ability.
What is factor analysis?
Developed by Karl Pearson and Spearman
factor analysis –a statistical procedure that
allows researchers to identify underlying
commonalities common factors –among a
group of tests.
How does factor analysis work for intelligence tests?
In the case of intelligence tests, these common
factors would be the particular abilities that
affect peoples performance on more than one
test.
Suppose that a group of ppl take takes several
different tests of intellectual abilities.
If the scores of several of these tests of one
person correlate, than the tests or subtests
measure the same factor.
A factor analysis determines which set of
tests forms groups.
Ex. Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test was
applied to 933 people. The correlations each subtest
had with every other subtest were calculated and
subjected to factor analysis:
The analysis revealed 3 factors: A, B, C
Each test related to each factor to a certain
degree
www.notesolution.com
Factor A: vocabulary related to this factor the
most followed by information, comprehension,
and similarities. In the middle range are
picture completion and etc. We could call this
factor verbal ability. However, almost all other
tests make atleast a moderate contribution so
we can call this factor general intelligence.
Factor B: Digit span related to this factor the
most. Perhaps, this factor is related to
maintaining information in long-term memory
and manipulating numbers.
Factor C: appears to be determined by block
design, object assembly, picture completion.
Spatial ability.
What are the disadvantages of factor analysis?
It provides clues about the nature of
intelligence but not a theory of intelligence.
The names given to the factors by the
investigator are subjective.
To identify the relevant factors in human
Intelligence, one would have to include an
extensive variety of tests in the factor
analysis.
Factor analysis does not reveal factors (other
important abilities) that are not measured by
test it is used to investigate.
Ex. WAIS does not measure musical ability.
Other factor analyses have been performed on tests of
intellectual abilities:
Ex. Louis Thurstone administered a battery of
56 tests to 218 college students and found 7
factors from factor analysis; verbal
comprehension, spatial visualization, memory,
reasoning, and perceptual speed.
Catell performed a second-order analysis on
the 7 factors found 2 major factors:
fluid intelligence (gf): relative culture free
tasks that measure the ability to see relations
among objects or the ability to see patterns in
a repeating series of items. It represents a
potential ability to learn and solve problems.
crystallized intelligence (gc): tasks that
require people to have acquired information
from their culture (vocabulary, and school
work). This stuff is accomplished through gf
Horn says that both factors are learned but
also hereditary.
Work analogies and vocal, general info and use
of language tests load heavily on the gc factor.
If 2 people have the same experience, the one
with the greater gf will develop a greater
crystallized intelligence.
A person with a high gf exposed to an
intellectually impoverish environment will
develop a poor gc.
An Information Processing theory of
Intelligence
Robert Sternberg:
Believed that a persons success depended on
how well they effectively analyzed and
managed their strengths and weaknesses
He proposed a triarchic theory of intelligence.
This theory derives from the information
processing approach used by many
neuropsychs.
The three parts of the theory deal with 3
aspects of intelligence that contribute to
successful intelligence –according to
Sternberg, are:
a)Analytic intelligence: according to Sternberg,
the mental mechanisms people use to plan and
execute tasks; serves 3 functions:
-Metacomponents: the process/ability of ppl to
decide the nature of an intellectual problem,
select a strategy for solving it and allocate
their resources. (eg. Planning, which part of
the book is important and reading it a lot)
-Performance components: processes/abilities
actually used to perform a task. Ex. word
recognition & working memory (lexical access)
-Knowledge acquisition components: processes/
abilities that a person uses to gain new
knowledge by sifting out relevant information
and integrating it with what he or she already
knows.
b)Creative Intelligence: according to Sternberg,
the ability to deal with novel situations and to
solve problems automatically that have been
encountered before, according to Sternberg:
-Task that require gf demand novel approaches
-Tasks that require gc demand mental
processes and have to automatic
www.notesolution.com
-We cannot should not think of intelligence as a
quality isolated from other aspects of a
person, as, creative people are willing to
tolerate criticism and at least initial rejection
of their new ideas
c)Practical Intelligence: according to Sternberg,
intelligence (ability) that reflects the behaviours
that were subject to natural selection:
-Adaptation: fitting oneself in to ones
environment by developing useful skills and
behaviours. In different cultures and contexts,
adaptation takes different forms. Ex.
Malaysian Sarawak hunter-gatherer must
know a poisonous plant from a safe one.
-Selection: finding ones own niche in the
environment Ex. choosing a career and
sticking to it success
-Shaping: changing the environment when its
not good and there is no alternative
environment. Ex. when an employer does not
like a persons work, he/she starts his/her own
business.
What supports Sternbergs emphasis on practical
intelligence?
-Observations of ppl with frontal lobe damage
support Sternbergs emphasis on practical
intelligence: These ppl still do well on
intelligence but have lost the ability to plan
their lives or even daily activities.
-Ex. of Physician with head injury pg. 331. He
lacked a very crucial component of intelligence
(planning), so clearly, this indicates that
intelligence tests are neglecting something
important.
Neuropsychological Theories of
Intelligence
Howard Gardner: formulated a theory of multiple
intelligences and rejected the idea of a single or a few
primary types of intelligences. From Gardners
perspective, intelligences are situated w/i a culture
and are potentials that may or may not have been
activated depending on the need. Each of the
intelligences are a result of evolution, are determined
by biological isolation (brain damages).
Gardner concludes that are 8 intelligences.
Table, pg.332
A 9th one: existential intelligence, may also
exist
Three are already identified earlier:Verbal-
linguistic intelligence, Logical-mathematical
intelligence, and Visual-spatial intelligence
Sterners practical intelligence overlaps with
Gardners naturalistic intelligence when
applying to the specific example of being able
to distinguish edible and poisonous plant. The
diff is that practical intelligence is a quality
broadly associated with broadly associated
with practical abilities, while natural
intelligence has its own independent status.
The rest of his intelligences are not recognized
in psychology as distinct facilities
This theory has the advantage of recognizing
views of intelligence held by non-Western
cultures, who fail at Syllogism –a logical
construction of that contains a major premise,
a minor premise, and a conclusion. The major
premises are assumed to be true, and the
truth of the conclusion is to be evaluated by
deductive reasoning.
Ex. when a Kpelle Farmer was asked: “All kapelle
men are rice farmers. Mr.Smith is not a rice farmer. Is
he a Kapell man?” the answer:Ive never seen the
guy, so i cant tell.
This does not mean the farmer was could not
solve a problem in deductive logic, its just
that, their logic is just dif
This theory allows for the recognition of
different types of intelligences, but Gardener
is not interested in finding hardcore proofs
himself, but others are.
Intelligence Testing
From Mandarins to Galton
-Ever since our species have evolved, each
individual has had dif. Abilities (hunters,
toolmakers, warriors)
-Since 2200 B.C., Chinese administrators
tested civil servants (mandarins) periodically
for their job abilities
-In Western cultures, before the concept of
individualism came into being, difference in
social class was far more important
Sir Francis Galton (cousin of Charles Darwin):
-Most early investigator of indiv. differences in
ability
-He observed that there were family differences
in ability and concluded that intellectual
abilities were heritable
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Ch. 11 Intelligence and Suppose we administer 10 different tests of intellectual abilities to a group of people Thinking If each test measures a separate independent ability, the scores of the ppl on one test will be unrelated to the scores on other tests, the Any definition of intelligence depends on varying correlations amongst the tests will be 0 It the tests measure the same abilities, they cultures based on a different range of necessary skills required for survival in that culture. the scores will be related and the correlation Theories of Intelligence will be 1.0 In reality, most of these tests are moderately Is intelligence a global trait or composed of separate, independent abilities? correlated so a person who scores well on a vocab test tends to score well on arithmetic Although psychs have devised tests that give a single number, IQ, it does not mean that and etc. These correlations tend to range from .30 to .70 intelligence is a single general characteristic. So we can conclude that a general factor Hockey player example trying to play baseball accounted for these moderate correlations but couldnt. Pg.327. A persons score on a particular test does There are 2 controversial views on intelligence: depend on 2 things, the persons specific ability and the persons general ability. 1. Specific abilities are totally independent 2. One general factor influences all abilities What is factor analysis? Developed by Karl Pearson and Spearman Spearmans Two factor theory of factor analysis a statistical procedure that intelligence allows researchers to identify underlying Charles Spearman: Proposed that a person commonalities common factors among a performance on a test is determined by two factors: group of tests. g factor: a factor of intelligence that is common to all How does factor analysis work for intelligence tests? intellectual tasks and includes the following: In the case of intelligence tests, these common 1. Apprehension of experience: ppls abilities to factors would be the particular abilities that perceive and understand what they experience affect peoples performance on more than one 2. Eduction of relations: the ability to perceive test. the relations from given facts Suppose that a group of ppl take takes several 3. Eduction of correlates: the ability to apply a different tests of intellectual abilities. rule inferred from on cases to a similar case If the scores of several of these tests of one Ex. doctor is to patient as lawyer is person correlate, than the tests or subtests measure the same factor. to... A factor analysis determines which set of tests forms groups. s factor: a factor of intelligence that is specific to a particular task. Ex. Wechler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test was Where does empirical evidence for this theory come applied to 933 people. The correlations each subtest from? had with every other subtest were calculated and subjected to factor analysis: From correlations among various tests of particular intellectual abilities The analysis revealed 3 factors: A, B, C Each test related to each factor to a certain This is how it works: degree www.notesolution.com
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