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Midterm

PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Dyslexia, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence, Deep Structure And Surface Structure


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Study Guide
Midterm

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CHAPTER 10
According to Chomsky, newly formed sentences are represented in the brain in terms of their meaning, which he
called their deep structure.
Developmental dyslexia appears to be caused by abnormal development of parts of the left hemisphere.
Hansel has difficulty reading words with irregular spelling (such as yacht). She has no difficulty reading
pronounceable non-words. Hansel likely has surface dyslexia
A specific deficit in reading ability that is caused by brain damage occurring after a person has already learned
how to read is called acquired dyslexia
The two-word stage of language acquisition involves children combining words creatively.
A unique string of phonemes that an infant makes is called a protoword
Ian and Michaela have a pet bird named Butters and a pet cat named Truffles. Michaela tells Ian that she saw
Truffles at daycare today...and Butters in the park. Michaela is probably a child who is making an overextension
error
The branch of psychology that studies verbal behavior is called psycholinguistics
Context important in speech perception
Content words express meaning
Agrammatism often results from damage to Broca's area.
People who suffer from autotopagnosia cannot name their body parts.
In reading, the average duration of a fixation is about 250 milliseconds
After an injury to her brain, Celeste cannot read nearly as well as she once could. Celeste appears to be suffering
from a form of dyslexia known as acquired dyslexia. Celeste has an acquired dyslexia because she already knew
how to read before she sustained brain damage. Developmental dyslexia becomes apparent when people are first
learning how to read.
During acquisition of language, infants become less sensitive to speech sounds in languages other than their
own
an abundance of function words is NOT a characteristic of child-directed speech
Nate, who is about three years old, calls his family pet, Molly, a "dog." (Molly is actually a dog.) However, all
other dogs he calls "kitties." This is an example of both an overextension and an underextension
Most adults tend to correct children's speech by saying the sentence or phrase correctly
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We do not perceive speech as a string of individual words. Instead, we perceive speech to be a stream of speech
punctuated by pauses and marked by high and low pitches.
The manner in which words are organized in a sentence indicates to the listener who did what to whom. For
example, in the sentence, "The girl winked at her friend," we immediately recognize it was the girl who behaved
(winked) with respect to her friend. Word order of sentence is important.
The sentences "The girl patted her dog on his head." and "The dog was patted on his head by the girl." have
different surface structure and same deep structure.
Pure word deafness is caused by damage to Wernicke's area
Abstract content words are probably BEST understood as adjectives that modify less abstract content words
The babbling found in young children reflects the adult speech that they hear
the most successful attempts at teaching non-human primates symbolic communication are those that involve a
close working relationship between the animal and the person. In these cases, the initial attempts at
communication involve nonverbal communication.
Syntax refers to the rules of language, rules such as those that determine the correct ordering of words within a
sentence
"Raoul went to school." and "Jack went to jail." While the words in both sentences are essentially organized in
the same order (surface structure), the sentences convey different meanings (deep structure).
Cannot detect prosody when reading a sentence
Even though this sentence contains two seemingly different thoughts, it makes sense to us. This is assumed to be
due to our use of scripts when interpreting language.
Broca's aphasia is a problem creating well-formed meaningful speech.
In fact, this patient sounds like they have something called "pure word deafness" whereby someone's hearing is
fine, but they just cannot understand words Wernickes area
CHAPTER 11
Analytic intelligence: plan and execute tasks
Creative intelligence: ability to deal with novel situations and solve familiar problems automatically
Practical intelligence involves being able to adapt to a new environment
Fluid intelligence is defined by relatively culture-free tasks, while crystallized intelligence is defined by tasks
that require people to have acquired information and knowledge from their culture. (the information we gather
from our experiences)
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Spearman's g factor in his two-factor theory of intelligence is comprised of which three principles?
Apprehension of experience, education of correlates, education of relations
the validity of an intelligence test is assessed by the strength of the correlation between test scores and criterion
If you were looking at a child's deviation IQ, you would be using Stanford-Binet Scale developed after 1960.
Norms are data that is used to compare an individual's score to his or her peers'
Why is the problem of bias so rampant in intelligence tests? Tests may include items that are foreign to certain
groups.
The correlation of IQ scores among identical twins is more than double that of siblings reared apart.
In later life, a person's intelligence is jointly determined by environmental factors and brain structure.
Determination and heritability not the same things
the word chair is an example of a basic-level concept but the word high chair is an example of a subordinate
concept
education of reasoning is NOT one of the cognitive principles that are involved in Spearman's "g" factor
the level of crystallized intelligence that one possesses depends heavily on one's learning experiences (which
depends heavily on one's personal experiences), one's intellectual environment, and one's level of fluid
intelligence.
It is true that people who sustain damage to their frontal lobes can still perform well on standardized tests of
intelligence. However, they perform poorly in other areas, such as planning activities in their daily lives.
Alfred Binet developed the first intelligence test for use in the French school system.
A reliable IQ test is one in which a person who takes it twice will achieve similar scores each time.
The relative importance of environmental factors in a trait depends on the amount of environmental variability
present in the population.
The lowest correlation in intelligence is likely to occur between two sisters raised apart
Concepts exist because the characteristics of objects and situations have consequences for us.
By definition, a mental model is a mental construction of reality based on physical reality that is used to solve
problems involving deduction.
hurstone argued that intelligence involved 7 factors
According to Sternberg, if you put together someone's analytic intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical
intelligence, you now have their successful intelligence
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