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Lecture Notes for Final

Course Code
John Bassili
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PSYCH Lecture 18 - Personality (Freud's Psychodynamic Theory)
- psychodynamic approach name meaning psycho: psyche, dynamic: (psychic/mental) energy
- interplay between the three elements are important elements of self, which each person has that are
always at play which determine how we think/feel
- three elements :
1) Id (primarily unconscious, we don't understand what is happening in the id, we only understand the
- the trouble maker: essentially place where all of our impulses come from, not a thoughtful entity,
provides motivation to satisfy the desire for pleasure in an instinctual manner, functions on pleasure
principle, (next two regulates and puts constraints on id)
2) Ego (conscious) - rational part of self, functions on reality principle
3) Superego (conscious) - think abstractly of morals and ethical considerations (how would the other
person feel?)
Defense Mechanisms
- according to Freud, ego and superego is not completely conscious
-defense mechanisms work at the level of the ego and superego; it also controls the impulses of the id,
which takes energy
- this interplay b/w the ego superego and id which requires energy, but when one has to spend a lot of
energy regulating conflicts the individual is susceptible to mental illness
- when we have impulses from the id, we evoke defense mechanisms (which takes mental energy to
defend itself from upsets of impulses of id)
-defense mechanisms are used when there is something that might be disappointing, it cannot be
accepted because it will violate moral standards so we have to fight against these urges
- ex; there is an only child with that loves attention (id always wants attention) and gets it, but than the
mom becomes pregnant. First born has hatred against second child, is it appropriate for the first child to
say "i hate jimmy and Ill kill him to solve my problem"? <-- Freudian conflicts
- defense mechanisms in this sibling rivalry example:
- rationalization happens afterwards, self handicapping- finding reasons less upsetting ahead of time
Personality Development
- psycho sexual development: stages in childhood.
- Id wants oral gratification when a baby, sucking on mother
- Anal stage- gratification from washroom
- Phallic stage- feel their clitoris or penis out of curiosity, than when the child gets older the child realizes
they can get pleasure through their genitals
- bodily sensations of early life become focal points of behavior
- object relations - whether how well this relationship well determines how characters develop
- where do disorders come from? according to Freud, they come from fixation (hang-up that happens
during psychosexual development) that we carry with ourselves for the rest of our lives
- ex: anal personality (being an asshole, lol),
- if parents do not help the child during potty training and child doesn't learn successfully. 2 ways how
child can deal with anal stage:
1) anal retentive personality (too worried about things and ridiculous), still being hung up with early child
hood experiences
2) anal expulsive (going to make their parents pay for allowing them to get gratification of pooing)
-narcissism- we all think we are important, but narcissist personalities go into extreme (get very upset if
these people are thought of as average, because they are so full of themselves)
- healthy narcissism- need to love and value ourselves and regard ourselves are worthy human beings

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- humanistic approach, doesn't put effort in early childhood, defense mechanisms, etc. Human beings
are all inherently worthy and all have needs to self fulfill (which is what drives us)
PSYCH Lecture 19- Social Psychology (Car Sales and Conformity)
- social influence: changes in behaviour because of those who surround us, or what you have in your
head (ex: picture your dad when your deciding of whether you will study or watch TV)
- candid camera (like the show gags), situation: someone goes into the elevator and there is six others,
and everyone goes towards to the back of the elevator at the same time (no door there) while a guy
presses the floor button, and when it was his turn to get off, he was pressured to go towards to the back
of the elevator as well <-- this is social influence
- car sales: second largest purchase of someone's life is a car
- low ball technique, by giving you a low price (throwing a low ball) in comparison to other dealers, that
dealer has taken you out of the traffic. Throwing a low ball however is not to their advantage, so they
raise the price to cancel it out by adding in another thing.
- when you decide to buy the car for $17000, you have the momentum of being committed to buying that
car, (even though you lose the price afterwards) and you also have the commitment to buying from that
specific person
- in your mind you raise value of car because of the value you associate with it (this car must be valuable
since the managers are speaking in the other room while you wait for them)
-"when you make an offer for a house, you start moving the furniture in" when you put an offer on a
house, you already have imagined which furniture goes where, how you will decorate the rooms, thus
you have already made a commitment to buying that house. When your offer gets rejected, you go "omg
how do i move out", good sales people makes u committed
- "tricks of the trade" from a book- rules to follow for car dealership 1) never appear anxious, stay cool 2)
never negotiate down from the sticker price, always negotiate up from the invoice price (anchor and
adjust phenomenon, once anchored you have to pull away psychologically) set anchor to your advantage
not to the other party 3) whoever speaks first after an offer looses (prof doesn’t know how that works) 4)
never negotiate against yourself 5) always raise your bid in small increments
- conformity: solomon asch
- what happens when one of the eight gives the right answer and break the unanimity? the conformity
drops a lot
- the more the individual has a prior commitment to give a correct answer, the less likely they will conform
(for ex: writing down the answer)
PSYCH Lecture 20- Social Psychology (Obedience)
- obedience: issuing an order through authority
- obedience is often a good thing, for example: parents have authority and give instructions and
guidance, and the child should obey
- during WW2, Jewish was systematically exterminated, after the war there was a trial for this and the
defense used by officers was that they were obeying orders
- 1960's Vietnam war with USA, while the USA was there in the war, one particular atrocities against the
war in the U.S. was an interview between Mike Wallace (a journalist for show 60 minutes) and a person
in part of the army who was in village my lai. when the lieutenant kali ordered to kill men women and
children, the person did it because he said he was ordered (even though he was a father of a baby)
- Stanley Milgram stimulates a situation where you have someone in a position of authority telling you to
administer shocks to participants when they answer memory questions wrong
- "teacher" (the one who shocks) "learner" (one who gets shocked)
- 1st teacher refused to keep shocking
- 2nd teacher was having a very hard time with shocking the learner and refused however still continued
shocking when told to, he asked learner if he was okay, teacher told researcher the learner could be

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dead because the learner wasn't responding; but still continued to shock when the researcher told him
-After the experiment, 2nd teacher said he did not like how the guy was being shocked and was very
concerned, he insisted to stop but kept going because he was ordered
- 65% of cases in the same situation the subject went all the way to 'xxx' shock because of obedience
- big ethical question: is it ethical for milgram to put them through an episode where they feel that they
were ordered to kill someone and actually did it? There are no studies like this conducted in modern day
- conclusion: our behaviour is very much under the control of the 'situation'
- milgram interviewed psychiatrists prior to his experiment to see what they would predict
- slide 14: red line, 100% of people would administer the shock and complied until intense and then when
"learner" says "let me out" they stop the shocks, 65% of participants kept going even after they heard no
shock responses
- blue line- psychiatrists underestimated the power of the situation
- personality does differ, but the situation does get people to behave a certain way because of the
- milgram's analysis (based on distinction) is that people do have principles to abide life by and are in a
state of autonomy. When authority takes responsibility, you enter state of agency (prof's message: be an
agent of yourself)
PSYCH Lecture 21- Social Psychology (Bystander Apathy)
- 1964 in New York, Kiddie Genevisa parked her car and was walking to her apartment after going to a
bar and was followed by a man (also from the bar). He was stabbing her by an apartment where there
was 38 witnesses, within half an hour, out of all the people who was witnessing this, only one person
called the police
- when police came, they were all there but couldn't make the call in the first place
- in Toronto once, when someone collapsed someone went over to steal his cell phone (LOL)
- 1) noticing 2) is it appropriate to help? 3) taking the personal responsibility for intervening 4) figure how
to provide assistance 5) than you provide help
- many situations when people are apathetic
- *Diffusion of Responsibility: 1st explanation for genevisi case focuses on 'assuming responsibility' "why
should i take responsibility?" In genevisi case, all witnesses had reasons to believe that there were other
witnesses but couldn't tell if others were helping out. The individuals diffused responsibility by assuming
others have called the police
- *Pluralistic Ignorance: purse snatching where everyone else was there, they thought that the right thing
to do is nothing (aka: conformity, conform to others doing nothing)
- Cost: you have to risk some things to help out, the higher the cost the less you are likely to help
* = Get into psyche in dynamics of situation
- what role does memory play in holding together 'the self'. Endel Tovling? had access to a particular
patient K.C. (severe brain injury because of motorcycle incident) who lost all ability to remember anything
new and lost a lot of his past history. Does K.C. (kent cochrin) know himself?
- daniel schacter--> memory provides underpinning of sense of self, art makes you grope back to your
past experiences
- K.C. has semantic and procedural memory
- personality ratings of kent's self test and family's rating was the same
PSYCH Lecture - Nonverbal Communication
- A-B-A-B people taking turns
- social interaction is coordinated, where are A+B looking when they are speaking?
- when on speaks, 50% of the time they are not looking at the listener but listener looks at the speaker
most of the time
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