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PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Twin, Gordon Allport, Psychoticism

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John Bassili

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Chapter 14 personality
Personality: a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and
situations that differentiates one person from another
Trait theories
Hippocrates first explanation of traits
Had to do with predominance of the 4 humours in the body
Chloric increase of yellow bile tempered and irritable
Melancholic increase of black bile gloomy and pessimistic
Phlematic increase of phlem sluggish and calm
Sanguine increase of blood cheerful and passionate
Personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be
assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences
The idea that people can be assigned to distinct categories is rejected today by
most investigators
Personality trait: an enduring personality characteristic that reveals itself in a
particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations
Gordon Allport
Looked for words in a dictionary that described personality
Found about 18 000
Believe people with particular trait react similarly across situations because feel
unique sense of similarity that guides feelings
Catell: sixteen personality factors
Did factor analysis on allport and found 16 different personality traits
Eysenck: three factors
Did further factor analysis
3 main factors extroversion(opposite: introversion),neuroticism
(opposite: emotional stability), psychoticism (opposite: self control)
Extroversion: the tendency to seek the company of other people, to be
spontaneous and to engage in conversation and other social
behaviours with them
Introversion: the tendency to avoid the company of other people to be
inhibited and cautious, shyness
Neuroticism: the tendency to be anxious, worried and full of guilt
Emotional stability: the tendency to be relaxed and at peace with
Psychoticism: the tendency to be aggressive, egocentric and antisocial.

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Self control: the tendency to be kind, considerate and obedient of
The 5 factor model
A theory stating that personality is composed of 5 primary dimensions,
neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and consciousness
Neuroticism, extraversion , and openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R): the
instrument used to measure the elements described in the five factor model
Psychobiological approach
Heritability of personality traits
Many studies have shown some personality traits are highly heritable
Identical twins are more likely to like each other than fraternal (concordance)
Zuckerman: heritability of extroversion 70%, psychoticism 59%, neuroticism
If family environment played a significant part, twins raised together should be
more similar than if they were raised apart WERE NOT!
2 possible explanations family environments could have been more
similar for identical twins or could have been perceived as different
for fraternal twins
Brain mechanisms involved in personality
Zuckerman: personality dimensions of extraversion determined by neural
Kagan: shyness could have a biological basis
The social learning approach
The idea that both consequences of behaviour and an individuals beliefs about those
consequences determine behaviour.
Expectancy: the belief that a certain consequence will follow a certain action
Observative learning: learning through observing the kinds of consequences others
(called models) experience as a result of their behaviour
Learn vicariously
Bandura: self efficacy
Reciprocal determination: the idea that behaviour, environment and person
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