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PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Sexually Transmitted Infection, Coronary Artery Disease, Passive Smoking


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

Page:
of 4
Psychology chapter 16 lifestyle, stress and
health
Cultural evolution: lifestyle choices and consequences
cultural evolution: the adaptive change of culture to recurrent environmental
pressures
o
product of human intellect and physical capacity
lifestyle: the aggregate behaviour of a person; the way in which a person leads his or
her own life
o
Cultural evolution resulted in much higher standard of living but also put
threats to health and safety.
Personal responsibility to avoid threat
o
Many unhealthy choices are a result of reinforcing consequences in the short
run but long term damaging consequences
Healthy and unhealthy lifestyles
Healthy enhances an individuals well being, unhealthy diminishes.
Nutrition
o
Should choose high fibre low fat diet
o
Avoid coronary heart disease(CHD)
Physical fitness
o
Ancestors probably better physical shape than us today
Most people today lead sedentary lives
o
Physical lowers risk of death due to variety of causes
o
Aerobic exercise: physical activity that expends considerable energy increase
blood flow and respiration and thereby stimulates and strengthens heart and
lungs and increases body’s efficient use of oxygen
Cigarette smoking
o
47000 deaths from smoking
o
Passive smoking
o
www.notesolution.com
Bad for kids and pets
o
Why do people do it? peer pressure, favourable impression of one who smokes
o
Canada has an anti smoking thing
Drinking alcoholic beverages
o
Psychological effects of alcohol euphoria
o
Neuronal activity of the brain becomes suppressed, reduces inhibitory controls
on behaviour, moderate to heavy amounts people become more relaxed and
outgoing, impaired motor coordination
o
Drinking and alcoholism may be genetic
Sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS
o
Safe sex practices will prevent this
o
Ask
Unhealthy lifestyles are preventable: self control
Problem getting people to suitable healthy behaviours for unhealthy ones and make
positive lifestyle changes
Short term rewards versus long term rewards
Stress and health
Stress: a pattern of physiological, behavioural and cognitive responses to stimuli
(real or imagined) that are perceived as endangering ones well being
Stressors: the stimuli that are perceived as endangering ones well being
o
Product of natural selection
o
Come in many forms
o
Stress is a biological response that is experienced as an emotion
Heart rate increases breathing becomes deeper and faster, digestion
stops, secrete adrenaline
Selyes general adaptation syndrome:
o
Bodys adaptation to chronic exposure to severe stressors, 3 stages
Alarm stage: arousal of automatic nervous system
Resistance: the stage entered with continued exposure to the stimulus
Exhaustion: continuous stage of exposure
Stress used to only be a short term event, adaptation evolved
from that
www.notesolution.com
o
Autonomic and hormonal responses can have aversive effects on health
o
fight or flight response
autonomic and hormonal responses can have aversive effects on health
o
most harmful effects caused by the prolonged secretion of glucocortiods
short term are essential, long term are damaging
cognitive appraisal and stress
o
Cognitive appraisal is ones perception of stress, 1. Evaluation of threat, and
whether or not we have the resources to cope
o
if we dont think we can deal then we have high levels of stress
o
animals become ill in the stage of exhaustion
o
likelihood that people will suffer from CHD depends on how they react to stress
o
friedman: behavioural pattern:
type A pattern: high levels of competitiveness, hostility an impatience
increased risk of CHD
type B pattern: low levels of competitiveness, hostility and patience
decreased risk of CHD
o
post traumatic stress disorder: anxiety disorder in which an individual has
feelings of social withdrawal accompanied by typically low levels of emotion
caused by prolonged exposure to a stressor
o
psychoneuroimmuniology: study of interactions between the immune system
and behaviour as mediated by the nervous system
2 separate immune reactions
Antigens: enable the immune system to recognize bacteria an
foreign substances
Antibodies: proteins in the immune system
Stress can suppress the immune system
Wide variety of stress producing events in a persons life can increase
the susceptibility to infectious diseases
3-4 days before show signs of an infection is when persons says they
were stressed - direct association
Cancer prone personality: behaviour pattern marked by cooperativeness, lack of
assertiveness, patience, suppression of negative emotions and acceptance of external
authority
Coping with everyday stress
Life changes source of stress death, promotion, married, personal injury
www.notesolution.com