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PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder, Somatic Symptom Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili

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Psych chapter 17 the nature and causes of
mental disorders
Classification and diagnosis of mental disorders
Mental disorders are characterized by abnormal behaviour
o
Distinction between normal and abnormal can be very subjective
o
Maladaptive is the most important factor
o
Mental disorders bring pain and discomfort to those people and their friends
and family
Origins?
o
Psychodynamic perspective
Mental disorders originate in the an intrapsychic conflict produced
between the three parts of the mind ID EGO SUPEREGO
o
Medical perspective
Concept of mental illness as an illness of the mind
Caused by specific abnormalities of the brain and nervous system
o
Cognitive behavioural system
Learned maladaptive behaviours
Focuses on environmental factors and a persons perception of them
o
Humanistic perspective:
Proper personality occurs with unconditional positive regard
Mental disorders arise when people perceive that they must earn the
positive regard of others
o
Sociocultural perspective
Cultures in which people live in plays a significant role in the
development of mental disorders
Extent to which person perceives their own behaviour as normal or
abnormal
o
The diathesis stress model of mental disorders
How do we think about causes
A causal account of mental disorders based on the idea that mental
disorders develops when a person possesses a predisposition for a
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disorder and faces stressors that exceed his or her abilities to cope
with them.
The diagnostic and statistical manual:
o
DSM-IV: widely used manual for classifying mental disorders used in north
America
o
Provides reliable set of diagnostic categories
o
5 different criteria axis
I psychological disorders
II-personality disorders
III- physical disorders
IV severity of stress, and source
V overall level of psychological, social and occupational functioning
Problems:
o
Emphasizes biological factors
o
Reliability
o
Mental disorders do not hive distinct borders
o
Labelling someone can affect clinical judgements
o
Diagnosing only describes the symptoms
Thomas szasz labelling has negative effects on concept of mental illness and does
more harm
Proper classification has its benefits effective treatment
Interpreting data
2 ways to interpret data clinical or actuarial
Clinical judgements: diagnosis based largely on experts experience and judgement
Actuarial judgements: diagnosis based on numerical formulas
Anxiety, Somatoform and Dissociative Mental Disorders
Anxiety: a sense of apprehension or doom that is accompanied by many
physiological reactions such as accelerated heart rate, sweaty palms and tightness
in stomach
Panic disorder
o
Unpredictable attacks of acute anxiety that are accompanied by high levels of
physiological arousal and that lacks from a few seconds to a few hours
o
Accompanied sometimes with anticipatory anxiety: the fear of having an panic
attack
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