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PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Gestalt Therapy, Aversion Therapy, Psychoanalysis

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John Bassili

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Psychology chapter 18 The treatment of
mental disorders
Mental disorders and psychotherapy
Earliest attempt to treat mental disorders trephining
oTrephining: a surgical procedure in which a hole is made in the skull of a
living person
oPeople believed that people with mental disorders were in possession of evil
oPeople began to believe that they were ill and sent them to asylums
extraordinarily inhumane
oPhillippe Phinel thought kind treatment of patients would benefit them
Development of psychotherapy:
oJene Memser women with hysteria able to cure through hypnosis
oEclectic approach: a form of therapy in which the therapist uses whatever
method he or she feels will work best for a particular client at a particular
Insight therapies
Assume people are essentially normal but learn maladaptive thought patterns and
Behaviour is a symptom of an underlying problem
oPsychoanalysis: form of therapy aimed at giving client insight into his or her
own unconscious motivations and impulses
oIn early stages of therapy, clients problems are difficult to identify, because
the analysis and client are unaware of the underlying unconscious conflicts
oInterpret clues about origins of intrapsychic conflict given by client
oClient unconsciously evokes one or more defence mechanisms
oPsychoanalytic techniques:
Free association: client is encouraged to speak freely, without
censoring possibly embarrassing or socially unacceptable thoughts or
Minimising authoritative contact
Dreams are crucial underlying meaning of dream content
Manifest and latent content
oResistance: a development during therapy in which the client becomes
defensive, unconsciously attempting to halt further insight
Good step
oTransference: the process by which a client begins to project powerful
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attitudes and emotions onto the therapist
Essential to the success of therapy
oCountertransferernce: process by which the therapist projects his or her
emotions on the client
This is NOT good
oModern psychotherapy puts less emphasis on the sexual factors of
psychoanalysis ego has control over the psych
Humanistic therapy
oHumanistic therapy: a form of therapy focusing on the persons unique
potential for personal growth and self actualization
oCarl Rogers
Client centered therapy: form of therapy in which the client is allowed
to decide what to talk about without strong direction and judgement
from the therapist
Unconditional positive regard: according to Rogers, therapeutic
expression that a clients worth as a human being is not dependant on
anything that he or she does, says, feels or thinks
oGestalt therapy
Gestalt theory: a form of therapy emphasizing the unity of mind and
body by teaching the client to get in touch with unconscious bodily
sensations and emotional feelings
Confrontational get client to deal with problems
oPsychoanalytic therapy takes lots of time
oInsight therapy is not suitable for serious problems
oHumanistic is more affordable and less time consuming
Behaviour and cognitive behaviour therapies
Therapies based on classical conditioning
oSystematic desensitization
Systematic desensitization: a method of treatment in which the client
is trained to relax in the presence of increasingly fearful stimuli
Remove unpleasant emotional response
Implosion therapy: therapy attempts to rid people of fears by arousing
them intensely until responses diminish through habituation and they
learn that nothing bad happens
oAversion therapy
Aversion therapy: treatment in which the client is trained to respond
negatively to a neutral stimulus that has been paired with an aversive
Therapies based on operant conditioning
oBehaviour modification
oAltering maladaptive behaviour by rearranging the contingencies between
behaviour and its consequences
oReinforcement of adaptive behaviours is a powerful method of behavioural
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