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Final

Ch11 detailed chapter notes i used these to study and did well on the exams


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
John Bassili
Study Guide
Final

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Chapter 11
Intelligence is made up of a variety of skills that must be coordinated and the results of their use must be
synthesized
Most psychologists define intelligence as a person’s ability to learn and remember information, to
recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information to their own behaviour in an
adaptive way
Any definition of intelligence depends on cultural judgments
Three dominant approaches to studying intelligence:
Differential approach - development of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s
abilities to solve problems
Skills that are important in the classroom
Ex. Explain proverbs, define words, solve arithmetic problems etc.
Developmental approach - studying the ways in which children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think
about the world
Jean Piaget
Information processing approach - the types of skills people use to think and solve various types of
problems
Theories of Intelligence
Is intelligence a global trait or is it a composite of separate, independent abilities?
The fact that IQ (intelligence quotient) tests yield a single score doesn’t mean that intelligence is a single,
general characteristic
One point of view - some intellectual abilities are completely independent of one another
Ex. Someone is good at spatial reasoning but poor at solving verbal analogies
Three theories of intelligence: two-factor theory, information processing theory, neuropsychological theory
Spearman’s Two-Factor Theory
Proposed that person’s performance on test of intellectual ability determined by two factors - g factor
(general factor) and s factor (factor specific to a particular test)
G factor comprises three “qualitative principles of cognition” - apprehension of experience, eduction of
relations, and eduction of correlates
Eduction - the process of drawing or bringing out; figuring out from given facts
Solving analogies requires all three principles
Ex. Lawyer:client::doctor:________
If we administer 10 different tests of intellectual abilities to a group of people and each test measures a
separate, independent ability
Scores these people make on any one test will be unrelated tot heir scores on any other; correlations will
be about zero
If tests measure abilities that are different manifestations of a single trait, scores will be perfectly related
Scores will be perfectly related - close to 1.0
A general factor (g) accounts for the moderate correlations among different tests of ability
A person’s score on a particular test depends on two things: the person’s specific ability (s) on the
particular test, and his or her level of the g factor
Evidence from Factor Analysis
Pearson and Spearman developed this statistical procedure
Identifies underlying commonalities among groups of test
Common factors would be abilities that affect people’s performance on more than one test
(tables in lecture)
Factor loadings - like correlation coefficients; express degree to which a particular test is related to a
particular factor
Factor analysis helps generate clues about nature of intelligence; it can’t provide a theory of intelligence
Names given to factors up to investigator and include a degree of subjective judgment

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WAIS (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale) is a useful predictor of scholastic performance and (to a lesser
extent) of vocational success
It won’t reveal other important abilities that aren’t measured by the tests it is used to investigate
Ex. No test of musical ability
Fluid intelligence (gf) - relatively culture-free tasks: ability to see relations among objects r ability to see
patterns in repeating series of items
Crystallized intelligence (gc) - tasks that require people to have acquired information from their culture
(ex. Vocabulary, information learned in school)
GC is accomplished through use of GF
Information Processing Theory of Intelligence
Sternberg: the degree of success that people achieve in life is strongly affected by the extent to which the
effectively analyze and manage their unique combinations of strengths and weaknesses
Three parts of the theory deal with three aspects of intelligence: analytic, creative, and practical
Together the three aspects contribute to successful intelligence - the ability to analyze one’s strengths and
weaknesses; to use the strengths to greatest advantage; and minimize the impact of weaknesses by
overcoming or compensating for them
Analytic intelligence - mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks
Ex. Verbal ability and deductive reasoning
Components of analytic intelligence serve three functions:
Meta-components (transcending components): people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, select
strategy for solving it, and allocate their resources
Performance components: processes actually used to perform the task
Ex. Word recognition and working memory
Knowledge acquisition components: those the person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant
information and integrating it with what he/she already knows
Second part of Sternberg’s theory deals with creative intelligence - ability to deal effectively with novel
situations and solve familiar problems automatically
Able to analyze situation and bring mental resources to bear on the problem, even if it’s a new problem
Tasks that use fluid intelligence demand novel approaches
Tasks that use crystallized intelligence demand mental processes that have become automatic
Third part of theory deals with practical intelligence - reflecting behaviours that were subject to natural
selection in our evolutionary history
It takes three forms: adaptation, selection, shaping
Adaptation: fitting oneself into one’s environment by developing useful skills and behaviours
Takes different forms in different cultures
Selection: ability to find one’s own niche in the environment
Shaping: changing the environment
Neuropsychological Theories of Intelligence
Gardners theory of multiple intelligences; rejects idea of a single or even few primary types of
intelligence
Intelligences are situated within cultures
Each intelligence is the result of evolution and has separate, unique, neuropsychological underpinnings
Eight intelligences that meet his criteria of distinctness - p.344 table
Naturalist intelligence overlaps with practical intelligence (Sternberg)
His theory also has the advantage of recognizing views of intelligence held by some non-western cultures
As Gardners theory gains recognition, social and cultural attitudes toward what constitutes intelligence
may change accordingly
Definitions of Intelligence
Syllogism - a logical construction that contains a major premise (eg. All birds have feathers), a minor
premise (eg. A Canada goose is a bird), and a conclusion (eg. a Canada goose has feathers)
Major and minor premises are assumed to be true, but problem is to decide whether conclusion is true or
false
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