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PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Anxiety, Memory, Serotonin


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Kyle Danielson
Study Guide
Final

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PSYA02H3

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Chapter 12: Personality
Lecture 1
Personality a idiidual’s style of ehaiou, thought, ad feelig
o Stable across time and situations
Idiographic approach individual differences
Nomothetic approach common trends in the population
Study of personality
Describing personality
Characteristics
Inventory
Explaining personality
Why are they the way they are?
Personality theories, e.g. trait approach
How to measure personality?
o Observation?
Drawbacks change the way we behave to seem more favourable
o Usually takes 2 forms
Personality inventories (personality tests/scales)
Projective tests
o Personality inventories (tests, scales)
Rely on self-report
Work when honest + know yourself really well
We may not know certain things about ourselves
Interviews, written questionnaires -> lots online
o Most online tests are weak in validity and reliability
Validity measuring what it says it measures
Reliability same results at different times
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
o Reliable, clinically valid test
o Tue/false/a’t ase
o Lots of questions, meant to cause fatigue
o Get first instinct answers
Criticisms of personality inventories
o Test administrator can be biased
o Less of an issue with true/false
o Test ay ask uestios that the take a’t ase eause they do’t ko
themselves
o Test taker may be biased and report socially desirable traits
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Lecture 2
Personality characteristics, etc. about a person that stay stable over time
Basic structure of MMPI binary questions of a larger volume
o Forces one to make decisions about themselves vs. scalar where they pick a
number
o Induce fatigue so responses are more automatic and less biased
Criticisms of personality inventories
o So broad that they apply to everyone, like horoscopes
o Test administrator is biased interpreting answers
Could be that the test taker changes their answers to be more socially
reliable
Test takers are negatively biased more critical of themselves
MMPI Validity Scales
o Sets of questions that mitigate bias
F-scale (frequency scale)
high rates of true responses
Over-reporting or severe psychopathology
L-scale (lying scale)
High rates of false responses
Indicate lying to appear socially desirable
? scale
High ates of I do’t ko idiates a ialid test
Personality theories
o Measuring personality
Describe + explain
Trait approach
o Personality is a series of traits
o Stable + consistent disposition (to behave in a certain way)
o Use factor analysis to reduce into lowest possible sets of traits
Individuals rate themselves on hundreds of traits
Traits that are highly correlated are combined into factors
Traits with no correlation are combined into separate factors
The Big Five
o Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
Levels on the big five tend to increase throughout the lifespan
Exceptions in old age, openness to experience decreases
Personality states change across situations
Location, associations, activities, mood
Where does personality come from?
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