PSYA02H3 2014 EXAM PACKAGE ALL CHAPTERS.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens

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PSYA02H3 2014 EXAM PACKAGE – ALL CHAPTERS
CHAPTER 9: INTELLIGENCE, APTITUDE, AND COGNITIVE ABILITIES
Module 9.1: Measuring Aptitude and Intelligence
- intelligent people are typically described as “brainy,” “wise,” etc. based on how
much a person knows, as well as how successful the individual is at solving
problems
owe can improve our everyday notions of intelligence by applying a
psychological definition to the above concept
Intelligence is the ability to think, understand, reason, and cognitively adapt to and
overcome obstacles.
oIntelligence reflects not just how one knows, but their ability to recognize
and solve problems
Achievement and Aptitude
Achievement tests measure knowledge and thinking skills that an individual has
acquired.
oI.e. on small scale, quizzes and tests taken in college courses
oI.e. on large scale, statewide and nation-wide tests are given every year in
an attempt to measure if individuals, schools, and sometimes demographic
groups have reached mastering subject matter
Aptitude tests are designed to measure an individual’s potential to perform well on a
specific range of tasks.
oI.e. college entrance exams like SAT claim to measure the student’s
potential as a college student
- in short, achievement tests current abilities and aptitude tests possible future
performances
Constructing and Evaluating Tests
Psychometrics is the measurement of psychological traits and abilities – including
personality, attitudes, and intelligence.
oThe task of constructing questionnaires and tests falls under this category
oItems on tests and questionnaires are carefully constructed and evaluated
for their relevance to the psychological trait they measure
- The two most important concepts in general research including psychometrics are
reliability and validity
oNote: validity is the degree to which tests actually measures what it
intends to measure.
I.e. how do we know that the SAT is really measuring the ability to
succeed in college?
There are several ways of answering this question thereby
demonstrating the validity of this tests  one method: psychologist
PSYA02H3 2014 EXAM PACKAGE – ALL CHAPTERS
may look for predictive validity – the degree to which a tests
predicts future performance
The correlation between SAT scores and high GPA in college is
quite modest (~0.33) but shows weaker correlation after first year
oNote: reliability – the measurement of the degree to which a test produces
consistent results.
One method of measuring reliability is through the process of test-
retest reliability – the same way that you expect a reliable car to
start every time you turn on the engine, the same way your results
on a test will be consistent
SAT scores show some variability in results and this increase in
scores is not due to changes in intelligence rather that the SATs are
not a perfectly reliable test
Standardization And Norms
Standardized tests are tests that have a set of questions or problems that are
administered and scored in a uniform (in other words, standardized) way across large
numbers of individuals.
oAllows for comparisons across individuals
- Intelligence test scores can be compared because of the existence of a norm.
Norms are statistics that allow individuals to be evaluated relative to a typical or standard
score.
oFor most intelligence tests, the norm or average score is out of 100
oAnother statistic, called the standard deviation, measures variability
around a mean
In intelligence tests, this can be interpreted as typical number of
points between an individual’s score and the mean score
May also be thought of as the average distance away from the
average
Percentile rank is the percentage of scores below a certain point.
oI.e. a score of 100 has a percentile rank of .50, meaning that 50% of the
population scores below this level; a score of 85% has a percentile rank of
~.16, meaning that 16% of the population scores below it
- Generally a norm is established by distributing it amongst many hundreds of
people and calculating the mean as well as the standard deviation
Approaches to Intelligence Testing
- Attempts to measure intelligence include standardized tests as well as other
diverse measures i.e. from assessment of brain sizes to record how fast a person
reacts to stimuli
The Stanford-Binet Test
PSYA02H3 2014 EXAM PACKAGE – ALL CHAPTERS
- 1904 French government created the Commission on the Education of Retarded
Children
- Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed a measurement to assess childrens
academic achievement and found most were ill prepared
oTheir work resulted in an achievement test – measuring how well a child
performed in various cognitive tasks relative to other children their age
oBinet preferred to say that this test assessed an individual’s mental age
Mental age is the average or typical test score for a specific chronological age.
oUsing this system, if a 7 year old child had the mental age of 7, theyd be
considered average
- the practicality of Binet and Simons tests were apparent and other researchers
began to adapt it for their own use
- Lewis Terman at Stanford University extended the test beyond school ages to
include very high-achieving adults  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Stanford-Binet test is a test intended to measure innate (genetic) intelligence.
- Binet clearly viewed original tests as a measure of achievement rather than innate
capacities
- Soon after, William Stern developed another measurement called the intelligence
quotient (IQ)
Intelligence quotient is a measurement in which the mental age of an individual is
divided by the person chronological age and then multiplied by 100.
oI.e. 10 year old child with a mental age of 7 would have an IQ of 7/10 x
100 = 70
- the IQ score replaced the idea of a mental age – something the reflects progress in
school – w/ a number to measure a person’s ability
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is the most commonly used intelligence test used on
adolescents and adults.
- The Wechsler-Bellvue test (which was the WAIS predecessor) was first
developed by David Wechsler in 1939, and the WAIS is currently in its 4th edition
- The WAIS provides a single IQ core for each test taker – the Full Scale IQ – but
also breaks intelligence into two categories: General Ability Index (GAI) and
Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI)
oThe GAI is computed from scores on the Verbal Comprehension and
Perceptual Reasoning indices
oThese measures tap into individual’s intellectual abilities w/o placing an
emphasis on how fast a person can solve a problem and react to it
The CPI is based on the Working Memory and Processing Speed subtests
It’s included in the Full Scale IQ category b/c greater working memory
capacity and processing speed allow more cognitive resources to be used
for reasoning and solving problems
Ravens Progressive Matrices

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Description
PSYA02H3 2014 EXAM PACKAGE – ALL CHAPTERS ­ 1904 French government created the Commission on the Education of Retarded  Children ­ Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon developed a measurement to assess children’s  academic achievement and found most were ill prepared o Their work resulted in an achievement test – measuring how well a child  performed in various cognitive tasks relative to other children their age  o Binet preferred to say that this test assessed an individual’s mental age Mental age is the average or typical test score for a specific chronological age.  o Using this system, if a 7 year old child had the mental age of 7, they’d be  considered average  ­ the practicality of Binet and Simon’s tests were apparent and other researchers  began to adapt it for their own use ­ Lewis Terman at Stanford University extended the test beyond school ages to  include very high­achieving adults  ▯Stanford­Binet Intelligence Scale  Stanford­Binet test is a test intended to measure innate (genetic) intelligence.  ­ Binet clearly viewed original tests as a measure of achievement rather than innate  capacities ­ Soon after, William Stern developed another measurement called the intelligence  quotient (IQ) Intelligence quotient is a measurement in which the mental age of an individual is  divided by the person’ chronological age and then multiplied by 100. o I.e. 10 year old child with a mental age of 7 would have an IQ of 7/10 x  100 = 70 ­ the IQ score replaced the idea of a mental age – something the reflects progress in  school – w/ a number to measure a person’s ability  The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale  Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is the most commonly used intelligence test used on  adolescents and adults.  ­ The Wechsler­Bellvue test (which was the WAIS’ predecessor) was first  developed by David Wechsler in 1939, and the WAIS is currently in its 4  edition ­ The WAIS provides a single IQ core for each test taker – the Full Scale IQ – but  also breaks intelligence into two categories: General Ability Index (GAI) and  Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) o The GAI is computed from scores on the Verbal Comprehension and  Perceptual Reasoning indices  o These measures tap into individual’s intellectual abilities w/o placing an  emphasis on how fast a person can solve a problem and react to it • The CPI is based on the Working Memory and Processing Speed subtests • It’s included in the Full Scale IQ category b/c greater working memory  capacity and processing speed allow more cognitive resources to be used  for reasoning and solving problems  Raven’s Progressive Matrices 
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