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Midterm

PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Modafinil, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Memory Span


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Study Guide
Midterm

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CHAPTER 9 :Intelligent testing
9.1) Measuring Intelligence
Sterilization Act
In 1928 , Alberta passed the act giving doctors the power to sterilize people deemed to be
“genetically” unfit without their consent .
Leilani Muir had her fallopian tubes surgically destroyed thinking she was just getting her
appendix removed because she got 64 IQ point which is below the cut off average 70.
When she was retested later , her test score was 89.
Different Approaches to Intelligent testing
Intelligence and Perception: Galton’s Anthropometric approach
Sir Francis Galton
People learn about the world through their senses
Those with superior sensory abilities would be able to learn more
Therefore, sensory abilities indicate one’s intelligence
He created a set of 17 sensory tests Ex. Telling difference in weights, ability to hear
highest and lowest sounds
Began testing people in his anthropometrics laboratory.
Anthropometrics: “measurement of people” methods of measuring physical and mental
variation in humans.
James McKeen Cattell
peoples abilities on different sensory tests were not correlated with each other or only
very weakly Ex. Hear well but can’t see as well
students test scores does not correlate with their grades
therefore , it can’t be an indicator of intelligence
Intelligence and thinking: The Stanford- Binet Test
Alfred Binet:
Intelligence should be indicated by more complex thinking processes such as memory,
attention and comprehension.
defined Intelligence as the ability to think , understand, reason and adapt to or overcome
obstacles
Binet and Theodore Simons developed 30 tasks increase in difficulty to measure
intelligence
a child’s test score measure his mental age: the average intellectual ability scores for
children of a specific ages.
Lewis Terman
Standord-Binet Intelligence Scale
Stanford-Binet test : a test intended to measure innate levels of intelligence

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Difference from Binet test:
-Binet viewed his test as a measure of a childs current abilities, not a measure of an
innate capacity. .
-He believes his test scores are a changeable ability (grow out of it – catch up with peers)
not a fixed innate capacity (stuck with this score) as Sterns IQ scores indicate
To describe these fixed levels of intelligence, he adopted William Stern’s concept of IQ.
Intelligence Quotient ( IQ) : is calculated by taking a persons mental age , dividing it by
his chronological age and then multiplying by 100.
Average child – his mental age is same as chronological age – IQ = standard 100
Binet’s mental age and Stern’s IQ
didn’t really make sense with adults
if IQ scores remain constant after 16 , so do adults get dummer as they grow up !!
to fix this problem , they used a different measure to determine IQ for adults –
>deviation IQ: calculated by comparing the persons test score with the average
score for people of the same age.
Standard (average) =100
deviation IQ solves problem of IQ decline with age
The Wechsler adult intelligence scale
David Wechsler
developed IQ specialized for adult population ->Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
(WAIS) – most common intelligence test used today for adolescents and adults
WAIS - currently in it 4 th edition
Wechsler himself was classified as having mild intellectual disabilities “feeble minded “
is the term used then ( when he was 9 year old and his family migrated to US from
Romania)
WAIS provides a single IQ score for each test taker – Full Scale IQ-, then breaks it down
to General Ability Index (GAI) and Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI)
GAI -> computed from scores on Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning
indices – measure ones intellectual abilities with no emphasis on how FAST they can
solve problems and make decisions
CPIbased on the Working Memory and Processing Speed subtests – greater working
memory and processing speed allow more cognitive resources to be devoted to reasoning
and solving problems

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Ravens Progressive Matrices
Problem with Standord-Binet test and WAIS is that the questions in these test require
knowledge of the test developer’s culture and language, putting people of different
culture and language in a disadvantage
To avoid this culture bias , psychologists tried to develop a “culture-free “ tests.
John Raven
Ravens Progressive Matrices: an intelligence test that is based on pictures, not words ,
thus making it relatively unaffected by language or cultural background.
measure the extend to which test takers can see patterns in the shapes and colors within
a matrix then determine which shape and color would complete the pattern
IMPORTANT: Figure 9.3 page 356 Types of problems used to measure intelligence
The Chequered Past of Intelligent testing
IQ Testing and the Eugenics movement
Darwins natural selection theory
”Social Darwinism”
Westerns (Caucasians) are considered superior or more civilized
Galton (Darwins cousin)
made an extensive study of the heritability of intelligence
Eugenics =”good genes”
Terman ‘s intelligence tests used as a justification to eugenic practices (ex. Forced
sterilization)
immigrants – low scores- “feebleminded”= unable to make intelligent decisions or
judgments
Forced sterilization: 30 states and 2 Canadian states
In Alberta: Sexual Sterilization Act remained in force until 1972
new immigrants, the poor , Native people and the Blacks suffered more than White
middle and upper classes .
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