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Ch.11 Notes.doc


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYA02H3
Professor
Jordan

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Ch. 11 Intelligence and Thinking
- Intelligence: general term used to refer to person’s ability to learn and remember
information, to recognize concepts and their relations, and to apply the information
to their own behaviour in an adaptive way
oDifferential approach – approach to study of intelligence that involves
creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s
knowledge and abilities to solve problems (i.e. tests that ask people to
define words, explain proverbs)
oDevelopmental approach – approach to study of intelligence based on way
children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about world (i.e. Piaget)
oInformation processing approach – approach to study of intelligence that
focus on types of skills people use to think and solve problems
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
-people vary in many ways – abilities to learn and use words to solve arithmetic
problems, perceive and remember spatial info
-differential approaches assume we can best investigate nature of intelligence by
studying ways in which people differ on tests of intellectual abilities
-IQ scores: single score does not mean intelligence is single, general characteristic
-AQ score: athletic quotient – sum of all measurements of athletic tasks (i.e. jump,
run, catch); not useful in prediction who would be better gymnast, skier, swimmer,
b/c athletic ability consists of variety of skills , and different sports require different
combos of skills
-Some intellectual abilities are completely independent of one another
Spearman’s Two Factor Theory
-proposed that a person’s performance on test of intellectual ability is determined by
“g factor” and “s factor”
-g- factor: 3 qualitative principles of cognition
oapprehension of experience
oeduction of relations
oeduction of correlates
- g-factor – a factor of intelligence that is common to all intellectual tasks
- s-factor – factor of intelligence that is specific to particular task
- factor analysis: statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups
of tests
-empirical evidence form Spearman’s 2 Factor Theory comes from correlations
among various tests of particular intellectual abilities
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-10 different tests of intellectual ability:
oEach test measures separate independent ability, scores these people make
on any one test will be unrelated to scores on any other
oCorrelations on tests will be approx. zero
oIf tests measure abilities that are simply manifestations of single trait, scores
will be perfectly related
oIntercorrelations will be close to 1.0 - usually range from 0.3 to 0.7
-Spearman concluded that general factor (g) accounted fro moderate correlations
among different tests of ability
-Person’s score on particular test depends on 2 things: person’s specific ability (s) on
a particular test and his/her level of g factor (general reasoning ability)
Evidence form Factor Analysis
-permits researchers to identify underlying commonalities among groups of tests
-in intelligence tests, common factors would be particular abilities that affect
people’s performance on more than one test
-suppose group of people take several different tests of intellectual ability
-if each person’s scores on several of these tests correlate well with one another, we
conclude that the tests measure some other factor
-factor analysis determines which set of tests form groups
-Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
-Factor loadings – like correlation coefficients in that they express degree to which
particular test is related to particular factor
-Factor analysis cannot provide theory of intelligence
-Thurstone: performed factor analysis on college students and extracted 7 factors:
oVerbal comprehension
oVerbal fluency
oNumber
oSpatial visualization
oMemory
oReasoning
oPerceptual speed
-Cattell: fluid intelligence (gf) – culture-free tasks measure ability to see patterns in
repeating series of items; closely related to person’s native capacity for intellectual
performance; potential ability to learn and solve problems – casual learning
-Crystallized intelligence (gc) – tasks that require people to have acquired
information from their culture, such as vocab and info learned from school; what
person has accomplished through use of his/her fluid intelligence – school-type
learning
-Fluid intelligence supplies native ability whereas experience w/language and
exposure to books, school develop crystallized intelligence – gc depends of gf
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An Information Processing Theory of Intelligence
-Sternberg – devised triarchtic theory of intelligence that derives from information
processing approach used by many cognitive psychologists
-Degree of success that people achieve in life is strongly affected by extent to which
they effectively analyze and manage their unique combinations of strengths and
weaknesses
oAnalytical intelligence
oCreative intelligence
oPractical intelligence
- Successful Intelligence: according to Sternberg, ability to effectively analyze and
manage personal strengths and weaknesses; ability to a) analyze one’s strengths and
weaknesses, b) use strength’s to greatest advantage, c) minimize impact of
weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them
- Analytic Intelligence: according to Sternberg, mental mechanisms people use to
plan and execute tasks; includes metacomponents, performance components, and
knowledge acquisition components
-3 components of analytic intelligence serve 3 functions
oMetacomponents (transcending components) are processes by which people
decide nature of an intellectual problem, select strategy for solving it, and
allocate their resources (i.e. good readers vary amt. of time they spend on
passage according to how much info they need to extract from it)
oPerformance components – processes actually used to perform task (i.e.
word recognition and working memory)
oKnowledge Acquisition Components – those that person uses to gain new
knowledge by sifting out relevant info and integrating it w/what he/she
knows
- Creative Intelligence: according to Sternberg, ability to deal effectively w/novel
situations and to solve problems automatically that have been encountered
previously
-person able to analyze situation and to bring mental resources to bear on problem,
even if he/she has never encountered one like it before
-after encountering particular type of problem several times, person w/good creative
intelligence is able to “automate” procedure so similar problems can be solved
w/out much thought, freeing mental resources for more demanding work
-fluid intelligence – demand novel approaches
-crystallized intelligence – demand mental processes that have become automatic
- Practical Intelligence: according to Sternberg, intelligence that reflects behaviours
that were subject to natural selection: adaptation-fitting oneself into one’s
environment by developing useful skills and behaviours; selection-finding one’s
own niche in environment; and shaping-changing the environment
oAdaptation – fitting oneself into one’s environment by developing useful
skills and behaviours (i.e. grocery bargains and general knowledge)
oSelection – ability to find one’s own niche in the environment
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