PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Antidepressant, Agoraphobia, Genital Stage

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6 Apr 2011
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Psychology Chapter Notes
Chapter 14 personality
Personality: a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and
situations that differentiates one person from another
Trait theories
Hippocrates first explanation of traits
oHad to do with predominance of the 4 humours in the body
Chloric increase of yellow bile tempered and irritable
Melancholic increase of black bile gloomy and pessimistic
Phlematic increase of phlem sluggish and calm
Sanguine increase of blood cheerful and passionate
Personality types: different categories into which personality characteristics can be
assigned based on factors such as developmental experiences
oThe idea that people can be assigned to distinct categories is rejected today
by most investigators
Personality trait: an enduring personality characteristic that reveals itself in a
particular pattern of behaviour in a variety of situations
Gordon Allport
oLooked for words in a dictionary that described personality
oFound about 18 000
oBelieve people with particular trait react similarly across situations because
feel unique sense of similarity that guides feelings
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Catell: sixteen personality factors
oDid factor analysis on allport and found 16 different personality traits
Eysenck: three factors
oDid further factor analysis
3 main factors extroversion(opposite: introversion),neuroticism
(opposite: emotional stability), psychoticism (opposite: self control)
Extroversion: the tendency to seek the company of other people, to be
spontaneous and to engage in conversation and other social behaviours
with them
Introversion: the tendency to avoid the company of other people to be
inhibited and cautious, shyness
Neuroticism: the tendency to be anxious, worried and full of guilt
Emotional stability: the tendency to be relaxed and at peace with
Psychoticism: the tendency to be aggressive, egocentric and antisocial.
Self control: the tendency to be kind, considerate and obedient of laws.
The 5 factor model
oA theory stating that personality is composed of 5 primary dimensions,
neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and consciousness
oNeuroticism, extraversion , and openness personality inventory (NEO-PI-R):
the instrument used to measure the elements described in the five factor
Psychobiological approach
Heritability of personality traits
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oMany studies have shown some personality traits are highly heritable
oIdentical twins are more likely to like each other than fraternal (concordance)
oZuckerman: heritability of extroversion 70%, psychoticism 59%, neuroticism
oIf family environment played a significant part, twins raised together should
be more similar than if they were raised apart WERE NOT!
2 possible explanations family environments could have been more
similar for identical twins or could have been perceived as different for
fraternal twins
oBrain mechanisms involved in personality
oZuckerman: personality dimensions of extraversion determined by neural
oKagan: shyness could have a biological basis
The social learning approach
The idea that both consequences of behaviour and an individuals beliefs about those
consequences determine behaviour.
Expectancy: the belief that a certain consequence will follow a certain action
Observative learning: learning through observing the kinds of consequences others
(called models) experience as a result of their behaviour
oLearn vicariously
Bandura: self efficacy
oReciprocal determination: the idea that behaviour, environment and person
variables interact to determine personality
Everything affects everything
oSelf efficacy: people beliefs about how well or how badly they will perform
Seligman & schuluman: found people who find something positive in less desirable
circumstances are generally more successful than those who view it negatively
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