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PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Adrenal Medulla, Cardiology, Adrenal GlandPremium

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Dwayne Pare
Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Introductory Psychology: Part II
Professor: Dwayne Paré
mTuner 3
Exam Guide
Topics Included:
1. The Power of the Situation: Social Influences on Behaviour
2. Social Cognition
3. Attitudes, Behaviour, and Effective Communication
4. Behaviour and Health
5. Stress and Illness
6. Coping and Well-Being

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SECTION 1: 13.1 The Power of the Situation: Social Influences on Behaviour
Joe Darby
Military policeman
Was given a CD of pictures by his colleague, Charles Graner
- These pictures outlined the horrible abuse of Iraqi detainees in Abu Ghraib prison
Abu Ghraib was once used by Saddam Hussein as a brutal prison for torture and
cruelly; now it was being used by the U.S military
Darby was disturbed by these pictures, and decided to turn it over to the Army’s criminal
investigation unit
Darby feared for this life when he handed the pictures to the unit; however, he knew it was the
right thing to do
His anonymity was protected until then Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, appeared on TV
and personally thanked Joe Darby, by name, for turning in the photos
- This astonishing act destroyed Darby’s cover, leaving him vulnerable to anyone who would
seek revenge
His fellow soldiers congratulated him for his bravery; however, back him – America – he was
regarded as a traitor who put American soldiers in prison rather than Iraqis
Till this day, Darby and his family are under protective custody
The Person and the Situation
Philip Zimbardo, a prominent social psychologist
It is not about the “bad apple”; it is about the “bad barrels”
- He believes that the tragedy of Abu Ghraib was a failure of the whole system, involving not
just a few sadistic individuals but many social psychological forces that, together, set up a
situation that was hard to resist
Understanding Social Reality
Social psychologists study the interaction between the person and the situation
Kurt Lewin
Grandfather/key founder of social psychology
He stated that behaviour is a function of the person and the environment
- Gave the following formula: B= f(P, E)
This insight challenged Freudian theories
o Behaviour as an influence of psychological dynamics (id, ego, superego)
Also challenged behaviourism
o Emphasis on the person’s past history of conditioning
Social psychologists focused on the present moment, arguing that the situation a person
happens to be in at a particular time is a key influence on behaviour
Lewis brought a metaphor from physics into psychology:
- This became influential in social psychology and has been applied widely in the business

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“Arguing that a person’s behaviour was the consequence of sets of forces operating on the
person, and once an analyst sufficiently understood the forces, then the person’s behaviour
could be predicted, just as one could analyze the trajectory of an object by understanding the
physical forces (gravity, friction, etc.) operating on the object”
Social Psychology
80 years of research
Taking on for ourselves the behaviours, emotional displays, and facial expressions of others
- We do this in order to get along with other individuals
“Going with the flow”
Communication and behavioural coordination is highly influenced by our “unconscious”
- This nonconscious realm of experience is built out of many different aspects:
1. Attention, perception, emotions, and behaviour in social psychology
2. Neural systems such as mirror neurons that enable people’s brains to harmonize with each
3. Physiological synchronization that people experience when in close proximity with each other
over long enough periods of time that their own bodily processes become synchronized with
each other
Motor Systems
Involve the cerebellum and its procedural learning functions
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