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PSYA02H3 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Dissociative Identity Disorder, Social Anxiety Disorder, Generalized Anxiety DisorderPremium

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Dwayne Pare
Study Guide

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Introductory Psychology: Part II
Professor: Dwayne Paré
mTuner 2
Exam Guide
Topics Included:
1. Defining and Classifying Psychological Disorders
2. Personality and Dissociative Disorders
3. Anxiety, Depressive, and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
4. Schizophrenia
5. Treating Psychological Disorders
6. Psychological Therapies
7. Biomedical Therapies

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SECTION 1: 15.1 Defining and Classifying Psychological Disorders
Evil Spirits
Individuals who exhibited unusual behaviours and hallucinations were judged to be under the
sway of evil spirits inhabiting their bodies
By the 16th century, disorders were affiliated with witchcraft
- A 1486 German text was filled with instructions on how to identify a “witch”
Look for the “Devil’s Mark” on the body
o A mole or birthmark that could be interpreted as a sign of allegiance with
the Devil
“Treatments” for illnesses were the following: brutal imprisonment, torture, and demon
- Believed that these punishments would “rehabilitate” the individuals
- Individuals were also executed (tens of thousands of innocent people)
Mainly women
Middle Ages
Society began to accept that disorders were not affiliated with demon possession but physical
Residential facilities for the mentally ill
Set up across Europe
Goal was to “cure” the patient’s bodily afflictions that gave rise to their symptoms
Their treatments would certainly not meet modern standards of medical care and were
generally ineffective
- 40% of a person’s total blood volume was drained!
- Thrown into a pit of snakes
Believed that these situations would “cure” patients from their disorders
Phillippe Pinel and Dorothea Dix
A physician in France and a schoolteacher in the U.S
Attitudes towards mental illness changed due to these two
Their tireless advocacy for the mentally ill led to widespread reforms that ushered in a new
approach, called moral treatment
- Lead to patients being treated with kindness and decency, able to roam the hospital halls
and get outside for fresh air
However, there was no effective treatment for mental illness; thus, individuals were
Over half a million people were in psychiatric hospitals in the United States

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An antipsychotic medicine
Called Thorazine in America
Allowed people with schizophrenia and other disorders who were ”out of touch” with reality, to
be members of society efficiently; allowed them to function independently, live with their
family, and even sustain jobs
The success of chlorpromazine and other medications led to widespread deinstitutionalization,
which saw the number of psychiatric inpatients drop by over 80% over the next three decades
Not a cure; just a treatment
- Doesn’t mean that patients will be cured from their diseases
Increase in homeless individuals due to former patients quitting their medication and slipping
back to their disorders
Psychiatric Hospitals
Central focus is reintegrating patients back into society
This treatment is “secondary”
- Many mental health workers help people at the practical level
Why Can’t Mental Illness Be Effectively Treated?
Medical model
- Sees psychological conditions through the same lens as Western medicine tends to see
physical conditionsas sets of symptoms, causes, and outcomes, with treatments aimed at
changing physiological processes in order to alleviate symptoms
Problem: does not pay attention to the whole system of factors that affects an
individual’s overall functioning
o Focus on “curing”, rather than promoting wellness and helping the person
become stronger
Biopsychosocial Model
Overturned the medical model
- Includes physiological processes within a more holistic view of the person as a set of
multiple interacting systems
Table 15.1
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