PSYB01H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Facial Action Coding System, Ad Hoc Hypothesis, Pseudoscience

35 views20 pages
9 Nov 2011
Psychology: scientific study of people, the mind, and behaviour; focus attention on questions
about how we feel, think, behave, believe, and interact
Schswartz: maximization scale; set of 13 statements, 1 disagree completely, 7 agree comp.
Maximizers got better jobs but were less satisfied – doing better but feeling worse
Scientific method: absolute rules of research reflecting procedures and techniques for
conducting and evaluating psychological research
Rules, procedures, and techniques form a unified conceptual framework formal way of
thinking about a problem, idea, or question
Empiricism: knowledge is gained through experience, observation, and experiment
Is: can be answered by facts or empirical data; independent of social, cultural, political, and
religious preference
Ought: call upon cultural values and ethical considerations; cannot be answered solely on
basis of scientific evidence
Theory: coherent set of propositions that are used as principles to describe, understand, and
explain psychological or behavioural phenomena
Testable hypothesis: famed statement
Priori: exists before experimentation or observation; constitute key feature of scientific
Post hoc: hypotheses formulated after data are collected and analyzed; pose serious
problems for scientific method; increase likelihood of error and bias
Variable: characteristic that can take on diff values or can vary across participants
Sample bias: some members of population are less likely than others to be included in study
– Stats are computed on the sample and are assumed to provide estimates of the population
Probability: all stats are based on logic of probability
Reliability: consistency in replication
Validity: extent to which study provides true measure of what’s meant to investigate
Control variable: rule out confounds; i.e. personality test to rule out perfectionism of
maximizers. Unchanged throughout the experiment
– Observation & thinking -> formulate question -> hypothesis -> conduct study -> accept/reject
-> reinterpret hypothesis
Methods and tools of research
True experiments: controlled investigation in which one or more variables are manipulated
True experiment restricted to those IV such as placebo and experimental drug that can be
randomly assigned
Independent variable: researchers systematically manipulate
Dependent variable: examined and measured
Quasiexperiment: quasi as if; examine effects of independent variable that cannot be
directly manipulated or randomly assigned on dependent variable (i.e. gender, age, history)
Studies participants who have been exposed to specified events or those who have
specific characteristics
Control as many variables as possible so the interpretation of relationship between IV
and DV is not confounded
Descriptive research: focus on distribution of variables, quantitative association of variables
Correlation: stat that provide index of how closely related 2 variables are
Advantage: DS is always for quantitative comparison that can’t be directly manipulated
Disadvantage: Cannot determine causality
Naturalistic observation: type of DS used to collect behavioural data in natural environment
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 20 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Disadvantage: lack of control of variables that could influence behaviour in natural
Survey: set of questions; limited by what people are capable of reporting accurately
Performance based measures: test performance is scored and compared to stat average
derived from normative or standardization sample taken from wider population
Psychometric: intelligence, personality traits, aptitude
Advantage: rests largely on extensive reliability and validity studies that are
performed in development and construction of an instrument
Disadvantage: psychometric measures often culturally biased
Wechsler: measure variety of cognitive abilities such as vocab, mental arithmetic, spatial
reasoning, construct designs, summarized in IQ
Single subject design (small-n design): evaluate efficiency of particular intervention on one
or few cases
Advantage: Improve ability and monitor effectiveness
Disadvantage: uncertainty whether findings from one case is applicable to others
Qualitative research: participant observation, intensive interview, focus group; used to
study/understand phenomena in terms of meanings people attach to them
Especially suited for exploring research questions
Advantage: preserving complexities and diversities of human behaviour
Culture: rich and intricate melding of shared meanings, communal practices and rituals and
collective discourses and beliefs about human life that prevails in a given group or society
Memes: cultural “gene”; group ways of life spread from one mind to another, like genes
– Culture is important because it generates psychological differences among people
Cultural psychology: studies how culture shapes our thinking and vice versa
Cross cultural psychology: universality of psychological processes across diff cultures
Science vs. pseudoscience
Epistemology: way of knowing that is exclusively reliant upon objective, empirical
Transparent: techniques of ^ must be transparent so methods, procedures, and analyses
can be reproduced
Allows for peer review, open to
Pseudoscience: beliefs that are dubious but fascinating claims that are touted as
“scientifically proven” and bolstered by public testimonials of believers who have
experienced firsthand; i.e. horoscopes
Phrenology: defunct field of study; bumps and fissures of skull determined character and
personality of a person; psych attributes could be assessed
Lilienfeld’s 10 commandments of distinguishing science from pseudoscience
1. Tendency to invoke ad hoc hypotheses, which can be thought of as loopholes, as means
of immunizing claim from falsification
2. Absence of self-correction and accompanying intellectual stagnation
3. Emphasis on confirmation rather than refutation
4. Tendency to place burden of proof on skeptics, not proponents, of claims
5. Excessive reliance on anecdotal and testimonial evidence to substantiate claims
6. Evasion of scrutiny afforded by peer review
7. Absence of “connectivity” – failure to build on existing scientific knowledge
8. Use of impressive-sounding jargon whose primary propose is to lend claims as facade of
scientific respectability
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 20 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
9. Absence of boundary conditions failure to specify settings under which claims do not
Cognitive illusions
– Occur when our thinking deceives us
Heuristic biases: our minds naturally favour subjective impressions and personal anecdotes
over facts
False positives are usually harmless whereas false negatives may take you out
– Human mind is probability blind (see below)
Confirmatory bias: natural tendency of human mind to actively seek out and assign more
weight to any kind of evidence that favours existing beliefs, expectations, or a hypothesis
Doctrine of falsification: scientists should aim to falsify their theories rather than confirm
Self correcting: info accumulates with new advances and discoveries
Pseudoscience is stagnant and show little or no progress in accumulation of knowledge
Dualism: mind is nonphysical substance that’s fundamentally different from physical brain
Experimental: researcher able to exercise control over variables that are assumed to be the
causal agents producing predicted effect
Nonexperimental: actions and events carefully measured and catalogued, but IV cannot be
directly manipulated
Paul Ekman: facial expressions are universal, not culturally/socially learned
FACS facial action coding system
Found emotion is not conscious or cognitive process
Happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise, disgust, contempt
– Principal objective of research is to provide scientific understanding of topic of investigation
Goals of science: description, explanation, causality
Conceptual definition: provides meaning of abstract term; semantic or linguistic meaning
Operational definition: indicates how concept is coded, measured, or quantified
– Important aspect of scientific description and explanation establish predictive relationship
Explanation: prediction itself doesn't necessarily imply causation
Reason why we have explanation is because we really want to determine causality and
predictor doesn't necessarily mean causality
e.g. hair color and shoe size in violence person doesn't mean can predict violence
That’s why explanation help establish predictive relations. If you can understand
why, then you can explain and predict it. THUS, determination of causality is
hallmark of explanations
Causality: requires 3 kinds of evidence
Temporal precedence: cause precedes effect
Covariation: when cause is present, effect occurs; when cause absent, effect doesn’t
Alternative explanation: nothing rather than cause is responsible for effect
Confounds = third variables
Logic of experimentation
Goal is to eliminate all other possible “causes”
An ideal experiment eliminates all possible confounds
Realistically, a single study can rarely rule out all potential alternative explanations
Conceptual replications are necessary to sequentially eliminate other possibilities
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-3 of the document.
Unlock all 20 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get OneClass Grade+

Unlimited access to all notes and study guides.

Grade+All Inclusive
$10 USD/m
You will be charged $120 USD upfront and auto renewed at the end of each cycle. You may cancel anytime under Payment Settings. For more information, see our Terms and Privacy.
Payments are encrypted using 256-bit SSL. Powered by Stripe.