Study Guides (400,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSC (10,000)
Psychology (2,000)
Midterm

PSYB01H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Internal Validity, Discriminant, Direct Manipulation Interface


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Study Guide
Midterm

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 25 pages of the document.
Psychological Research Lab
Chapter 1
Midterm Notes
Chapter 1 — Scientific Understanding of Behaviour
-scientific research provides us with a means of addressing questions and providing answers
-ways in which knowledge of research methods can be useful in understanding the world around us
-characteristics of the scientific approach to the study of behaviour
-general types of research questions that concern behavioural scientists
USE OF RESEARCH METHODS
-understanding research methods helps you become an informed consumer
-newspapers, general-interest magazines and other media continually report research results
-you should read these reports and critically evaluate the methods employed, and decide whether the
conclusions are reasonable
-understanding research methods can give you a competitive edge in a variety of career paths
-many occupations require the use of research findings
-reading relevant literature and applying it in their professional lives
-knowledge of research methods and the ability to evaluate research reports are useful in many careers
-understanding research methods helps you participate in public policy debates
-legislators and political leaders propose legislation based on research findings
-research may also influence judicial decisions
-ex. psychological evidence accepted as evidence in a court case in which the U.S Supreme Court
banned school segregation in the United States
-the evidence claimed that segregating students by race was harming students and should be banned
-in Canada, psychologists frequently offer expert testimony and consultation in legal cases
-understanding research methods helps you evaluate the efficacy of programs in which you may choose
to participate or that you may implement in your community (ex. parenting programs)
METHODS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE
-many people rely on intuition and authority as ways of knowing
Intuition
-intuition - unquestioning acceptance of what your personal judgement or a single story about one
person’s experience tells you about the world
-it often involves finding an explanation for our behaviours or for the behaviours of others
-intuition is used to explain intriguing events that you observe
-many cognitive and motivational biases affect our perceptions and so we are likely to draw erroneous
conclusions about cause and effect
-illusionary correlation - that occurs when we focus on two events that stand out and occur together
-ex. when we stop looking for a mate and don’t find someone — we don’t notice this non-event
-ex. when we stop looking for a mate and find someone — we notice this event
-illusionary correlations are also likely to occur when we are highly motivated to believe in the casual
relationship
Authority
-we are more likely to be persuaded by a speaker who seems prestigious, trustworthy, and respectable
than by one who lacks such qualities
-authority - an alternative to the scientific method of acquiring knowledge, accepting anything learned
from supposed authority figures (ex. news media, government officials, religious figures, books)
-they believe that the statements of such authorities must be true
-advertisers use endorsements by authorities to sell products
Skepticism, Science, and the Empirical Approach
-scientists recognize that their ideas are likely to be wrong
-scientists are very skeptical

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Psychological Research Lab
Chapter 1
Midterm Notes
-scientific skepticism - the concept that ideas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results
from scientific investigations
-the fundamental characteristic of the scientific method is empiricism - use of objective observations to
answer a question about the nature of behaviour
-after developing a hypothesis, a scientist collects data to evaluate whether the hypothesis reflects the
nature of the world
-the four key characteristics of scientific inquiry are: !
- first: scientists make systematic observations that are accurately reported to other scientists !
and the public; others can replicate - to repeat a research study to determine whether the !
results can be duplicated !
- second: scientists search for observations that will help them make accurate discoveries, !
develop theories, argue that existing data support their theories, revise their theories if needed !
- third: science flourishes when there is an open system for the exchange and competition of !
ideas, research can be conducted to test any idea that is advanced, researchers are only !
interested in falsifiable ideas, falsifiable - capable of being shown to be false when tested !
using scientific methods, if an idea is falsifiable then it can be either supported or refuted !
using empirical data!
- fourth: peer review - the process of judging the scientific merit of research through review !
by peers of the researchers — other scientists with the expertise to evaluate the research, it !
must be reviewed by other scientists who have the expertise to carefully evaluate the research
Integrating Scientific Skepticism, Intuition and Authority
-scientific approach provides an objective set of rules for gathering, evaluating and reporting
information
-it is an open system that allows ideas to be refuted or supported by others
-scientists rely on intuition and assertions for ideas for research
-there is nothing wrong with accepting the assertions of authority as long as we do not accept them
uncritically
-scientists often become authorities when they express their ideas
-credentials — we are likely to pay attention to someone with an established reputation in the field
-we are also influenced by the reputation of the institution represented by the person
-we should also examine the researchers funding source
-pseudoscience - using scientific terms to substantiate claims without using scientific data (ex.
marketers and astrologers)
-we are all increasingly susceptible to false reports of scientific findings circulated via the internet
-we should be highly skeptical when scientific assertions are made that are supported by only vague or
improbable evidence
GOALS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN PSYCHOLOGY
-goals of scientific research - within psychology and the behavioural sciences are four general goals of
scientific research: to describe behaviour, determine the causes of behaviour, to understand or explain
behaviour, to predict behaviour
Description of Behaviour
-first goal of scientific research in psychology is to describe events, which involves careful observation
and measurement
-descriptive research can provide a foundation for future work
Prediction of Behaviour
-predict future behaviour
-after observing, it becomes possible to make predictions and to anticipate events
-the ability to predict often helps us make better decisions

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Psychological Research Lab
Chapter 1
Midterm Notes
Determining the Causes of Behaviour
-determine the causes of behaviour
-to know how to change behaviour; we need to know the causes of behaviour
-experiments help us identify cause and effect relationships
Criteria for Causal Claims
-three types of evidence used to identify the cause of a behaviour
-to conclude causation, three things must occur:!
- covariation of cause and effect - observing that a change in one variable is accompanied by a !
change in a second variable, when the cause is present; the effect occurs, when the cause is not !
present; the effect does not occur !
- temporal precedent - the cause precedes the effect in a time sequence !
- alternative explanation - a potential alternative cause of an observed relationship between !
variables, nothing other than a causal variable could be responsible for the observed effect
Explanation of Behaviour
-explain why the events and behaviour occur
-why does it occur?
-further research is necessary to shed light on possible explanations of the causal relationship
-additional research like this is carried out by testing theories that are developed to explain particular
behaviours
-new research findings almost always pose new questions that must be addressed by further research;
explanations of behaviour often must be discarded or revised as new evidence is gathered
BASIC AND APPLIED RESEARCH
-both basic and applied research are important, and neither should be considered superior to the other
Basic Research
-basic research - attempts to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behaviour
-studies are often designed to address theoretical issues concerning phenomena such as cognition,
emotion, motivation, learning etc
-scientists make their work public, they write it into the form of a journal article and submit it to a
scientific journal for peer review
-research is written in standard American Psychological Association style
Applied Research
-applied research - is conducted to address practical problems and potential solutions, specific and
immediate applications of the research
-applied issues and solutions to problems — the results of the studies can actually be used
-basic and applied research can more accurately be viewed as a continuum
-a major area of applied research is program evaluation
-program evaluation - research designed to evaluate programs that are designed to produce certain
changes or outcomes in a target population
-evaluates the social reforms and innovations that occur in government, education, the criminal justice
system, industry — determine whether it is having its intended effect
-applied research is conducted in settings such as large business firms, marketing research companies,
government agencies etc
-much applied research is guided by the theories and findings of basic research investigators
-the findings obtained in applied settings often require modification of existing theories and spur more
basic research
-research with no apparent practical value ultimately can be very useful
-no one can predict the eventual impact of basic research; therefore; support of basic research is
necessary both to advance science and to benefit society
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version