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5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB01H3
Professor
Connie Boudens

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Psychology Lab Methods in Behavioural Research: Cozby.
Survey Research. CHAPTER 7.
Goal is to ask people about themselves. Attitudes/beliefs.
Provides us with methodology to ask of them.
Surveys can be used for public policy services.
Study relationships btwn Variables such as attitudes/emotional states/self-reports
statements/ come into play.
Survey research complement to experimental research and multiple methods are
needed to understand behaviours.
Response set take into interest the bias of people as they answer to see the
tendency to respond to questions from one perspective. Social desirability is the
reason.
Conduct questions to Ask
Defining Research objectives: through attitude and belief changes/facts and
demographics/behaviours/simplicity/
Question wording: a) unfamiliar technical terms b) vague terminology c)
ungrammatical sentence structure d) phrasing overloads working memory e)
embedded question with misleading information.
Avoid double barreled questions (asking two things at once), loaded questions,
negative wording, yea saying/ney saying”- may be agreeing with you are saying.
Responses to Questions
Closed Versus/Open ended questions:
oCV = with multiple choice and OE = is open ended.
Response alternatives Strongly agree to strongly disagree.
Rating scales to Graphic Rating Scales. (end points label extremes- graphic has
checks measured on a line).
Semantics Differential Scale (is any concept respondents rate from persons, objects,
beh. Etc using bipolar adjectives on a 7point scale).
Nonverbal Scales for Children. (happy faces)
www.notesolution.com
Labeling response alternatives.(when asking about frequency of beh. Orrr to define
meanings of each alternatives).
Finalizing Questionnarie
Formatting the questionnaire. (no errors/space/neatly/ use scales consistently ]
[ sequence of questions themes]).
Refining Questions (think aloud procedure see how they interpret question)
Administering Surveys
Two ways (WRITTEN//INTERVIEW FORMAT)
Written involvesssss:
oQuestionnaries (less costly than ints/anonymous/--- bad must know to
read/might be boring/motivation.
oPersonal Admin to grps/ind. (advantage is usually the audience is more
captive).
oMail surveys (inexpens way/low response rate).
oInternet Surveys (open + closed ended questions –newsgroups/email
invitation/chat rooms/bulletin boards).
oPagers/cellphones/or with emotions.
Interviews
oMore likely to agree to answer for real person/response rates are
hugher/rapport is built btwn the two/answ qs that need verifying/interviewer
bias may be an issue.
oF2f
oTelephone
oFocus groups (6-10 ppl for abt 2-3hrs). Usually incentives to
participate/requires time and cost traveling).
Survey Designs studying Changes over time
For comparison purposes. Changes in attitudes/aspirations of beh/composition.
Another way to study over time is (panel study same ppl at two or more points in
time. They have waves representing amount of surveys).
Sampling frm a Population
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Description
Psychology Lab Methods in Behavioural Research: Cozby. Survey Research. CHAPTER 7. Goal is to ask people about themselves. Attitudesbeliefs. Provides us with methodology to ask of them. Surveys can be used for public policy services. Study relationships btwn Variables such as attitudesemotional statesself-reports statements come into play. Survey research complement to experimental research and multiple methods are needed to understand behaviours. Response set take into interest the bias of people as they answer to see the tendency to respond to questions from one perspective. Social desirability is the reason. Conduct questions to Ask Defining Research objectives: through attitude and belief changesfacts and demographicsbehaviourssimplicity Question wording: a) unfamiliar technical terms b) vague terminology c) ungrammatical sentence structure d) phrasing overloads working memory e) embedded question with misleading information. Avoid double barreled questions (asking two things at once), loaded questions, negative wording, yea sayingney saying- may be agreeing with you are saying. Responses to Questions Closed VersusOpen ended questions: o CV = with multiple choice and OE = is open ended. Response alternatives Strongly agree to strongly disagree. Rating scales to Graphic Rating Scales. (end points label extremes- graphic has checks measured on a line). Semantics Differential Scale (is any concept respondents rate from persons, objects, beh. Etc using bipolar adjectives on a 7point scale). Nonverbal Scales for Children. (happy faces) www.notesolution.com
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