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PSYB01

Prof. Nagy

Final exam

Chapter 7: Asking People about themselves: Survey Research

- surveys provide us with a methodology for asking people to tell us about

themselves

- provide us with a snapshot of how people think and behave at a given point in time

- also important as a complement to experimental research findings

- assumption: is that people are willing and able to provide truthful and accurate

answers

- a response set: is a tendency to respond to all questions from a particular

perspective rather than to provide from a particular perspective rather than to

provide answers hat are directly related to the questions , can affect the usefulness

of data obtained, most common is social desirability or ‘ faking good’

Avoid asking …..

- double barrelled questions: questions that ask two things at once

- loaded questions: is usually written to lead people to respond in one way

- negative wording: question with a ‘not ‘ in it i.e. should not, will not, might not

- yea- saying and nay- saying: respondent will employ a response set to agree or

disagree with all the questions

There are different types of questions: open ended and closed ended. Closed questions have

a limited number of responses alternatives; they are also easier to code. With open-ended

questions the respondents are free to answer in anyway they like

Rating scales: ask people how much, a graph rating scale requires a mark along a

continuous 100 millimetre line that is anchored with descriptions at each end

- one potential problem with interviews is called interviewer bias and describes all of

the biases that can arise from the fact that the interviewer is a unique human being

interacting with another human

Face-to-face interviews: requires that the interviewer and respondent meet to conduct the

interview

Telephone interviews: all interviews for large-scale surveys are done via telephone, less

expensive than face –to- face interview, its had become easier with the advent of CATI

(computer assisted telephone interview) system

Focus group interviews: essentially an interview with a group of about 6-10 individuals

brought together for usually 2-3 hours

- another way to study changes over time is to conduct a panel study in which two

people are studied at two or more points in time

Sampling:

- Population is composed of all individuals of interest to the researcher

- Make inference about populations, they do so with a certain degree of confidence,

you know what the actual population value will be between a certain

percentage( confidence interval)

- A larger sample will reduce the size of the confidence interval

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- There are two main methods of sampling probability and non-probability sampling.

Probability sample each member has a specifiable probability of being chosen, in

the later we do not know the probability of any particular member of the

population being chosen

Probability: there are 3 types simple random sampling, stratified, and cluster.

-Simple random sampling

- Equal probability of being selected for the sample

-Stratified sampling:

- Population is divided into subgroups (strata) and random sampling

techniques are then used to select sample a sample

- Dimensions chosen should be relevant to the problem being studied

- Advantage: built –in assurance that the sample will accurately reflect the

numerical composition of the various subgroups

-Cluster sampling:

- Randomly sampling from a list of individuals,

- The researcher then identifies clusters of individuals

- And then samples from these clusters

Non-probability: there are three types’ haphazard, purposive and quota

-Haphazard sampling:

- Or sometimes known as convenience, or take-them-where-you-find-them

- Randomly chosen not based on any specific criteria

-Purposive sampling:

- The purpose is to obtain sample of people who meet some predetermined

criterion

- Good way to limit sample to a certain group of people

- Quota sampling:

- Researcher who uses his technique chooses a sample that reflects the

numerical composition of various subgroups in the population

- i.e. 5- first year, 10, second year….

- Method is still haphazard

- sampling frame is the actual population of individuals (clusters) from which a random

sample will be drawn

-response rate in a survey is simply the percentage of people in the sample who actually

completed the survey, most mail surveys have lower response rates

Chapter 8: Experimental design

- confounding variables: a variables that varies along with the independent variable

confounding, it occurs when the effects of the of the independent variable and an

uncontrolled variable are intertwined so you cannot determine which of the

variables is responsible of the observed effect

- simplest possible experimental design has two variables: the independent variable

which has 2: levels and experimental and a control group and dependent variable,

and can take one of two forms: post test only designs and pre-test or pre-test –post-

test

Post-test design:

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- Must 1. Obtain two equivalent groups of participants 2. Introduce the independent

variable and 3. measure the effect of the independent variable on the dependent

variables

Pre-test – Post- test design:

- a pretest is given before the manipulation

- larger the sample, the less likelihood there is that the groups will differ in any

systematic way prior to the manipulation of the independent variable

-participants are randomly assigned to the various conditions so that each partisan in only

one group this is called an independent groups design, repeated measures design is when

each participant is measured after receiving each level of the independent variable

Independent Groups Design

- different participants are assigned to each of the conditions using random

assignment

Repeated measures design:

- one group receives less meaningful material, same individuals participate in both

- may be order effect- the order of presenting the treatments affects the dependent

variable and include many types: practice effects is an improvement in performance

as a result of repeated practice with a task, fatigue effect is a deterioration in

performance as the research participants becomes tired or bored, contrast effects

occurs when the response to the second condition in the experiment is altered

because the two conditions are contrast to one another, way to combat it is by 1.

counterbalancing and devising a procedure in which the interval between the

interval between condition is long enough to minimize

Counterbalancing:

Complete counterbalancing: all possible orders of presentation are included in the

experiment

Latin squares: a limited set of orders constructed to ensure 1. Each condition appears at

each ordinal position and 2. Each condition precedes and follows each condition one time,

controls for most order effects without having to include all possible orders

Chapter 9: Conducting Experiments

- to manipulate an independent variable you have to construct an operational

definition of the variable, they is you must turn a conceptual variable into a set of

operations

- setting the stage: provide the participants with the informed consent information

needed for your study and explain to participants why the experiment is being

conducted

Types of manipulation

Straight forward manipulations: manipulate variables with instructions and stimulus

presentations, most manipulations of independent variables in all areas of research are

straightforward

Staged manipulations: stage events that occur during the experiment in order to manipulate

the independent variable successfully, most used for two reasons 1, create some

psychological state I the participants such as frustration, anger or a temporary lowering of

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