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Study Guide

Department

PsychologyCourse Code

PSYB07H3Professor

Dwayne PareStudy Guide

MidtermThis

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PSYB07H3

MIDTERM EXAM

STUDY GUIDE

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September 14, 2016

PSYB07 – LECTURE #2 – BASIC CONCEPTS

Lecture #2 – Basic Concepts

Math Review

- Order of Operations

- “BEDMAS”

oBrackets (left to right)

oExponents (left to right)

oDivision & Multiplication (left to right)

oAddition & Subtraction (left to right)

Population vs. Sample

- Population

oEntire collection of events in which you are interested

- Sample

oA subset of the population

- Example:

oThe entire class = population

o1 Tutorial = sample of my population

- A population can also be a sample

- Example:

oLet’s say I’m in the car with three of my friends, and we are trying to decide

where to go for dinner.

Korean barbecue?

Tim, Jess, and Sijina (Dwayne is driving)

oThe population = tim, jess, sijina, Dwayne

oSample = everyone because they are all making the

decision

oHow representative is the sample of the population

Tim, Jess and Sijina, are on a bus and bus driver asks those 3

people what they want to eat

oThe population = the bus

oSample = Tim, Jess, Sijing

oHarder time saying these 3 people are a representation of

the population

Descriptive vs. Inferential Statistics

-Descriptive statistics describe a data set

oCan be calculated for a population or a sample

oCalculating statistics or parameters

Parameter = when the descriptive describe the population

Example – average age of the population

oTaking the data at hand and finding a way to describe it

-Inferential statistics make conclusions about populations from samples

1

(2 -4)2

2

+(4

=(-2)2

+(0

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September 14, 2016

PSYB07 – LECTURE #2 – BASIC CONCEPTS

oEstimating population parameters using sample statistics

- Need to find out where statistics actual represent parameters

Population vs. Sample

- Descriptive statistics

oSample

oStatistics

- Inferential statistics

oSample à Population

oStatistics à Parameters

- Representative?

oExternal validity

The degree to which the sample reflects the population

Our sample is reflective of our population

Example: Trump went to all white institution to talk about black

rights – this is not externally valid because you are not

representing the group at hand

Example: How we address the American health system and

looking at one ethnic group – that is not representative

oSample size

Taking 3 people and hoping it represents 70 people would be an issue

oRandom sampling

Every member in the population has an equal chance of being selected

Ensures external validity

- First-person shooter game and Spatial attention

oDoes the first person shooter games effect spatial attention?

oLook at the Useful Field of View (UFOV)

Without moving your head, what info can you get from that scene very

quickly

Video gamers have a better UFOV because they’re used to it (used to

adapting and used to not moving and just looking directly at the screen)

- Intro to psych students -> external validity?

- Gamers vs Non-gamers

- Performance on UFOV task (accuracy)

- Spatial attention

oGamers vs Non-game

oMale vs Female

-Internal validity

oThe degree to which an experiment measures what it is supposed to

2

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