# PSYB07H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Null Hypothesis

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School
Department
Course
Professor AFTER MIDTERM EXAM NOTES
PHI COEFFICIENT ( )φ
1. χ2 Will establish (at the .05 alpha level) whether two variables are
related. A significant Chi-Square means we reject the null hypothesis
(which assumes that the two variable are independent. We feel we have
evidence that the two variables are related.
2. φ Gives the numerical value to the relation. The value can range
from zero to one. Zero meaning no relation at all (independence) and
one indicating a perfect relation. If you know one variable’s value you,
you can perfectly predict the value of the other variable.
-perfect relation between row and column = 1
-significant χ2 relation does exist
- gives a numerical value to the solution (0 to +1)φ
Cramer’s Phi or V
Test of Proportions
Given: Total and % in cells convert to Os and use :
*Problem of small expected frequencies based on the assumption if
experiment repeated infinity times with some marginal frequencies, Os
(observed frequency) would be normally distributed around Es (expected
frequency)
-if E is too small, normality will not happen E must be greater than or
equal to 5
-when Es is less than 5, you can collapse into adjacent categories
- χ2 also assumes independent observations rows or columns totals
must be EQUAL to the number of subjects/observations
φχ
=
2
Ν
Standardized measure gives way of standardizing
relationship
N = sample size
K = # of rows or columns whichever is smaller
χ
2
2
=
( )O E
E
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