PSYB10 WebOption, MIDTERM Study Guide
ProfessorElizabeth Page- Gould
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Introduction to Social Psychology
Lecture 1: Methods and Social Cognition
Correlational Designs: Proper Interpretation, if you have a Correlational study, you can say that
the two aspects co-vary each other and predict each other but not causation.
•Theory of mind: to predict what somebody else is thinking and to know that your thoughts are not
their thoughts. (occurs around 3-4 years if age)
•Lay theory: what people in general think or believe
Social Cognition: controlled cognition for example taking a test and focusing. Automatic cognition is
when you think about doctors, nurses come to mind automatically.
•Pre-attentive processes: something that catches your attention following by possible actions, for
example, someone pulls out a gun, it catches your attention and you hide for cover.
•Pilot study: where they develop the stimuli, for example, Snyder’s initial Self-fulfilling Prophecy
•Semantic network: the categorization of different things and its relationships in your mind. For
example, robins are related to birds whereas ostrich would be further related.
•Accessibility and Priming: recently thought about things are more easily related to current
social situations. Wegner’s study on Thought Repression, demonstrating the very act of saying “I’m
not thinking about it” becomes hyper-accessible.
•Ways you can process information and social world: Algorithms, and Heuristics
•Algorithms: has to go in order, have to actively use mental resources (effortful) but low error rate.
It is successful but not used often
•Heuristics: more common strategy, such as schemas. Thinking about more than one thing /
making more than one association at one time.
•Availability Heuristic: example, when she is trying to think how frequent something is going to
occur / broad questions like how was your summer. These will be based on accessibility. This tends
to result in overestimating their frequency.
oFor example, when you walk down a dark ally, you are afraid of being murdered rather than
getting TB. This is because murder is more frequency seen on news rather than TB (thus
being more accessible) when in reality TB incidence rates are much higher than murder.
•Representativeness Heuristic: related to prototype matching, for example, there is a group of
70% marketing executives and 30% computer engineers. Mia is a person in this group, she play
war craft, and has glasses. People say she is a computer engineer. She seems to represent the
•Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic: you anchor on what you want to do and adjust based on
how you think the context will affect you but in actuality, you do not efficient enough and thus
predict the wrong things
•Simulation Heuristic: for example, you go to a hockey game, you move up to an empty seat. But
the original seat you were at won 1 million dollars. This shows counterfactual thinking, replaying
what could have happened but what didn’t happened.
•Exam Question 1: D, all the other are Quesi-Experimental Designs.
Lecture 2: The Self Part 1
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