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PSYB10 Lec 3

Course Code
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Lecture 3 Notes PSYB10
The Selfa concept:
-the self: an individual consciousness of ones own identity
-your feelings, observations, and thoughts about how you perceive yourself
-does the self exist? Are we aware of it?
an awareness of the self as a distinct entity that is separate from others
-you are not other people, there is something unique about you, you are not part of the
environment like a tree or a rock
The Mark test/Rouge test:
-when you look in a mirror, do you recognize that the other person is you? Or another human being
-people that are unaware of self, think that when they are looking in the mirror they are
looking at a second human
-people that are self-aware, know its them
-infants can pass this test as well
-not just humans can pass this test
Parameters of Mark test:
-paint is applied to infants cheek as they are asleep, then they are woken up and taken to another
room with a mirror.
-test: does the baby reach for the other baby that it sees in the mirror? Or does it touch its own
cheek, showing self-awarneness?
-kid pointing to their own painted cheek, then they show self-awareness
-prior to one years old, kids are not self-aware

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Are animals self-aware? Same test done on the orangutan
-orangutan successfully points to its own cheek, indicating self-awareness (we never thought this
before up until the 1980s)
-other animals cannot pass this test, they show competitive and aggressive behaviour towards the
mirror, thinking that it is a competitor that they are seeing
-only a few primates can pass this test, orang-utans, chimpanzees, and bonobos
There are some arguments that say we cant assume that recognizing ourselves in the mirror really
implies that we are self-aware, we could just be recognizing what a mirror does,
But for PSYb10, we say that passing the mark test shows self-awareness .
Minimal Self: conscious experience of the self as distinct from the environment
-double stimulation: if you touch yourself on your arm, you can both feel your arm touching you,
and your arm under your hand (both the input and the output)
-however when you touch anything else, like the podium, its only single stimulation . (one-way)
-through these double and singular explorations in early life, this leads to the development of the
idea of the minimal self (knowing that you are a distinct object from the environment
Objective self: the cognitive capacity to to serve as the object of ones own or others attention
-animals have a basic sense of self as something different from the environment (cn help to protect
-I can reflecton what is going on with myself Objective Self: I can think about myself
Symbolic Self: the ability to form an abstract mental representation of one self through language
-I can come up with words that I can describe myself with, I can talk about my life history

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-why do we talk about the self in social psychology, isnt social psychology more about how we
socialize with other human beings ?
-the self is inherently social; without the presence of others, there is not need for the concept of self
Quote: My thought of self is filled up with my thoughts of others, and thoughts of others are
mainly filled up with myself. James Mark Baldwin
-when we think about ourselves, we think about how others perceive us and then that influences
how we see ourselves
-we also view others and try to empathize with their situation, what would we do if we were in
their position
-feral children, have deficits in cognitive, social and developmental pysch, cant do to the mark test
-developing the sense of self, usually during the critical period when growing up
Self Schema:
-cognitive representation of the self
-derived from past experience
-guides processing of self-related information
-imagine semantic network with the central concept being the self
Measuring the Self-Concept:
1)Twenty Statements Test (TST)
20 blank statements about yourself, (prompts) and your job is to fill in the blanks describing
-either do personality descriptions, or social roles (a part that you play, e.g. best friend,
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