Social Perception

32 views7 pages
user avatar
Published on 22 Jul 2011
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB10H3
Social Perception: How We Come to Understand Other People
Culture and Nonverbal Communication
Display rules are particular to each culture and dictate what kind of emotional
expression people are supposed to show
North American cultural norms discourage emotional displays in men. In Japan,
traditional cultural rules dictate that women should not exhibit a wide, uninhibited
smile
In collectivist cultures, the expression of strong negative emotions is discouraged
because to do so can disrupt group harmony
Emblems are nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a
given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations
The important point about emblems is that they, too, are not universal; each culture
has devised its own emblems
Many forms of nonverbal behavior are specific to a given culture. A gesture that has
meaning in one culture may not mean anything in another. Moreover, the same
nonverbal behavior can exist in two cultures, but have very different meanings in
each
Gender and Nonverbal Communication
Women are better at both decoding and encoding nonverbal information. Although
women are more accurate in interpreting nonverbal cues when a person is telling the
truth, men are better at detecting lies
Social role theory is the theory that sex differences in social behavior derive from
societys division of labor between the sexes; this division leads to difference in
gender-role expectations and sex-typed skills, both of which are responsible for
difference in mens and womens social behavior
According to Alice Eaglys social role theory, most societies have a division of labor
based on gender, whereby men work in jobs outside the home, and women work
within the home. This division of labor has two important consequences:
First, gender-role expectations arise. Members of the society expect men and
women to have certain attributes that are consistent with their role
Second, men and women develop different sets of skills and attitudes, based
on their experiences in their gender roles
Finally, because women are less powerful in many societies and less likely to
occupy roles of higher status, it is more important for women to learn to be
accommodating and polite than it is for men
According to Eagly, gender role expectations and sex-typed skills combine to produce
sex differences in social behavior
Judith Hall first classified 11 countries as to the level of oppression of women, based
on such statistic as the number of women who go to college and the prevalence of
womens groups in each country
She then examined how likely women in each country were to show the
politeness pattern when reading other peoples nonverbal behaviors that
is, to focus on nonverbal cues that convey what people want others to see and
to ignore nonverbal cues that leak peoples true feelings
The tendency of women to be nonverbally polite in this manner was especially
strong in those cultures where women are most oppressed
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Implicit Personality Theories: Filling in the Blanks
Implicit personality theory is a type of schema people us to group various kinds
of personality traits together; for example, many people believe that if someone is
kind, he or she is generous as well
Implicit personality theories serve the same function as does any schema. You can
extrapolate from a small to a much larger amount of information
Studies have found that university students relied on implicit personality theories to
determine whether they should use condoms. If they knew their partner and liked
their partner, participants assumed that he or she couldnt possibly be HIV positive.
If participants didnt know their partner, they relied on superficial characteristics
Culture and Implicit Personality Traits
We assume that what is beautiful is good people with physical beauty will also
have a whole host of other wonderful qualities. Consistent with this belief, when
Dion and Dion showed visitors to the Ontario Science Centre photographs of
attractive and unattractive individuals, more positive qualities were attributed to
the attractive individuals. Participants also predicted that attractive individuals
would experience more successes in life
Dion, Park, and Dion found that Chinese students at the University of Toronto who
were highly involved in Torontos Chinese community and therefore, probably more
collectivist were less likely to assume that an attractive person possessed desirable
personality traits compared with students who were not as involved in the Chinese
community
Causal Attribution: Answering the Why Question
Attribution theory is a description of the way in which people explain the causes of
their own and other peoples behavior
The Nature of the Attributional Process
Internal attribution, the inference that a person is behaving in a certain way
because of something about him or her, such as his or her attitude, character, or
personality
External attribution is the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because
of something about the situation he or she is in; the assumption is that most people
would respond the same way in that situation
People tend to prefer internal attributions over external ones. We tend to see that
causes of a persons behavior as residing in that person. We are perceptually focused
on people while the situation, which is hard to see and hard to describe, can be
overlooked
The Covariation Model: Internal vs. External Attribution
The first, essential step in the process of social perception is determining how people
decide whether to make an internal or an external attribution
Harold Kelley’s major contribution to attribution theory was the idea that we notice
and think about more than one piece of information when we form an impression of
another person
Covariation model is a theory stating that in order to form an attribution about
what caused a persons behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the
www.notesolution.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 7 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Social perception: how we come to understand other people.  display rules are particular to each culture and dictate what kind of emotional expression people are supposed to show.  north american cultural norms discourage emotional displays in men. In japan, traditional cultural rules dictate that women should not exhibit a wide, uninhibited smile. In collectivist cultures, the expression of strong negative emotions is discouraged because to do so can disrupt group harmony.  emblems are nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture; they usually have direct verbal translations. The important point about emblems is that they, too, are not universal; each culture has devised its own emblems.  many forms of nonverbal behavior are specific to a given culture. A gesture that has meaning in one culture may not mean anything in another. Moreover, the same nonverbal behavior can exist in two cultures, but have very different meanings in each.