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Final

PSYB10H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Thought Suppression, Representativeness Heuristic, Prototype Theory


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Study Guide
Final

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1
Social Psychology
Chapter 1: Intro
Social Psychology: study in which peoples thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced
by the real or imagined presence of other people they focus on the individual in a social
situation
(insert history of social psychology)
ABC’s of social psychology:
Affect emotions, feelings and mood
Behavior verbal/non-verbal action
Cognitionthought, sensation, perception, processing, memory
Chapter 2: Methodology
Methods
1) Correlational Method
-Can never conclude a CAUSATION, but can tell us the RELATIONSHIP (ex. What is the
relation between children’s aggression & how much violent tv they watch?)
-Can have 2 DV’s (ex. Ice cream sales correlate with drowning)
-No manipulation
-correlation coefficient: how well you can predict outcome of one variable based on
another (ex. How well you can predict people’s weight from their height)
*problem with correlation: can never say A causes B
2) Hypothetico/Deductive/ Lab Experimental Method
-Can conclude CAUSATION
-IV and DV
-Manipulation of IV to cause DV
*example: More bystanders in an emergency causes less people to react
Validity
-P-Value: # of how likely it is that the results are by chance and not the IV; result causal if
the probability of results being chance is less than 5 in 100
-Internal Validity: ensuring nothing other than the IV can affect the DV
-External Validity: results of a study can be generalized to target group
*to generalize situations: mundane realism (experiment is similar to real-life situations) &
psychological realism (to make sure psychological processes in the experiment occurs in
every day life…use cover story [give participant a false description of the study’s purpose])
*to generalize across people: replication (repeating study using different subjects and or
settings to get the same results)
Quasi-Experimental Design
-IV not manipulated; no control, no random assignment
*example: “Theory of Mind” M&Ms experiment; sticks in bag vs no stick in bag
Cross Cultural Research
-IV’s and Dv’s must be understood same way in different cultures

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Field Experiments
-Same as lab (controls IV) except it’s conducted in natural settings
*problem: difficult to control extraneous variables (since it’s in natural setting there could
be many people outside to interfere)
Chapter 3: Social Cognition
Automatic Cognition (Effortless, unintentional thinking)
1. Perception (becoming aware of the senses)
Ex. Pre-attentive Process (rapid processing of complex scene ie. You would immediately
look at a gun first in a crowded room/rapid =less than 250ms…something that catches your
eye)
Ex.2 Gaze detection (where you look first naturally)
2. Processing
-Encoding (selecting information from the environment & store in memory)
-Visual Attention (what we pay attention to ex. Gorilla suit during BBall game; attended to
boys playing the game & didn’t notice gorillahow powerful visual attention is)
-Schema (function: mental structures used to organize info about objects/people & to fill in
the gaps of our knowledge to reduce ambiguity ex. Person in dark alley way asks for your
wallet, you can fill in the gap by matching previously learned schemas & MAKING SURE
YOUR SCHEMA IS ACCURATE)
*“Shooter” experiment participants were likely to pull the trigger when the person in a
picture was black, whether or not he was holding a gun; shooter bias= people made few
errors when a black person was holding a gun, but most errors shooting an unarmed black
person
*As memory guides: more likely to remember info consistent with their schemas (ex. White
Kids remembered positive behaviors of their white classmates, and negative behaviors by
natives) & memory errors are consistent with their schemas (ex. Did not remember details
from Jack & Barbara story tried to fill in the blanks with their schema)
*Perseverance effectpeople’s beliefs about themselves and the social world persist even
after evidence supporting these beliefs is wrong (ex. Participants who received the
“success” scores and then found out later that info was bogus= still believed they’d
succeeded and do well on next test; those “failure” scores “” = believe they did poorly and do
poorly next time)
*Self-fulfilling prophecy expect what person is like, which influences how they act
toward that person, which in turn causes the expected person to behave in the expected
way (ex. Men looking at pretty photo of lady before talking on the phone, he is nice and
charming= person on phone was nice and charming; men at ugly photo, he is rude = lady is
rude b/c he was rude to her)
3. Storage
-Semantic Network (Mental representations of clusters of interconnected information)

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-prototype theory of categorization (objects classified based on similarity to prototype ie
a chair [has legs, functional purpose]…a bean bag is a chair, a stool is a chair)
-Spreading activation (thinking about one concept will “activate” a closely related object
ex. Canarybirdanimals…would take longer to words like “computer” if starting from
canary)
4. Heuristics (mental shortcuts- efficient but error prone)
-Judgmental Heuristic (make judgments quickly and efficiently):
*Availability Heuristic (base judgment b/c it comes to mind ie people are asked what is
more common, murder or TB- they say murder is more common than T.B b/c of news
media-, where actually T.B is more common)
*Representative Heuristic (people classify something according to how similar it is to a
typical case ex. Thinking a woman who speaks French is from France)
-Base-Rate info (frequency of members of different categories in the population ex. Go to
Germany, assume white-girl serving you coffee is from Germany, b/c most residences are
from Germany)
*Anchoring & Adjust (using the first answer that came to them as an “anchor” ex.
Bargainer suggests price to be 50$, so you suggest price around that anchored suggestion,
like 45$)
Controlled Cognition (Effortful Thinking)
1. Counterfactual Thinking/ Simulation: what might have been if we hadn’t “just missed”
avoiding a negative event (ex. “I could have gone on that plane if I was a second
earlier!”people who miss a flight by 3 min are more upset and simulate than ones who
miss by 30min) *hypothetical scenarios
2. Algorithms (step by step thinking process for answer- successful, more work)
3. Accessibility (extent to which concepts are forefront of your mind)
-Priming (recent experiences increase accessibility of a schema, making it more likely that
you will use this info to interpret new events)
*Example: reading book on mentally ill patients (subject is forefront of your mind), then
someone bothers you shouting, and then you think to yourself that person is mentally ill
-Thought suppression suppressed thoughts become HYPER accessible, therefore
you must think about the unwanted memory to suppress it
-Overconfidence barriertoo much confidence in their judgments; usually not as
correct as they think they are
Chapter 5: Self
Self-Concept (our knowledge about who we are ie roles, qualities ex I am smart)
Self-Awareness (act of thinking of ourselves as distinct from the environment/others)
Self-Complexity (depth and complexity of self-concept ex. What areas we are smart in)
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