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PSYB10H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Anterior Cingulate Cortex, Facial Action Coding System, Group Cohesiveness

Course Code
Elizabeth Page- Gould
Study Guide

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Group Processes
Groups: two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics,
and collectively have a sense of unity.
Social groups: have social norms, roles, and group cohesiveness
Social norms: group‟s prescriptions for the behaviour, values, and beliefs of the
o Group members are expected to conform to these norms
o To not conform can lead to punishment and exclusion
Social roles: group‟s expectations for the behaviour and responsibilities for the
various subgroups of its members
o Potential costs: individual personality may be taken over by power of role
and violation of social roles may result in censure from other group
o The Stanford Prison Experiment
Group cohesiveness: the degree to which a group is or is perceived to be close
knit and similar
o In minds of group members: cohesiveness promotes liking and ingroup
o In minds of outgroup members: cohesiveness results in stereotyping of
group members
Destructive groups (Cults): social group centered around devotion to a
person/belief/thing that employs unethical methods of manipulation and control
Defining characteristics of destructive cults
1. Charismatic leaders
2. Leaders are self-appointed
3. Leader is focus of veneration
4. Group culture tends towards totalitarianism
5. Group usually has 2 or more sets of ethics
6. Group presents itself as exclusive and innovative
7. Main goals: recruitment and fundraising
Deindividuation: state in which person loses the sense of himself as an individual
occurs in crowds, when physically anonymous, when group chanting/stomping
Social identity model of deindividuation effects
Social facilitation and social loafing: effects of groups on individual performance
Social facilitation: tendency for performance to be improved when doing well-
learnt or dominant behaviours in front of others and inhibited when doing less
practiced or difficult tasks in the presence of others

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Social loafing: tendency for people to perform worse on simple tasks and better
on complex tasks if they are in a group and not being individually evaluated
Process of Social Facilitation or Social Loafing: Evaluation, Arousal, and Task
o Evaluation Apprehension: concern about being judged/evaluated
o Socioevaluative threat: extreme evaluation apprehension. Leads to:
Body responds with stress hormone, cortisol
Cortisol constricts blood vessels in hippocampus, inhibiting memory
and learning
Distraction-conflict theory: attentional conflict occurs when a person is trying to
pay attention to more than one stimuli. It occurs when the person is pressured
into trying to pay attention to each stimuli equally. Attention is then diminished.
Collective effort model: working on tasks as a group tends to weaken motivation
o Lowering individual‟s expectations that their input will have any effect on
final goal
o Reducing subjective value of goals to the individual
Group decision making
Process loss: any aspect of group interactions that inhibits good problem solving
Brainstorming: technique in which a conclusion for a problem is found by group
members all suggesting different ideas
Group polarization: tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme
than initial inclinations of their members
o Can be a shift to either greater risk or greater caution
o Has both informational and normative reasoning
Group think: mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply
involved in a cohesive ingroup, when the members desire for unanimity overrides
the motivation to realistically appraise other courses of action extreme form of
group think
o Antecedents: highly cohesive; isolation; directive leader; high stress; non-
structured decision-making procedures

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o Symptoms: illusion of invulnerability; group is morally corrected; outgroup
is stereotyped; self-censorship; pressure for conformity; illusion of
unanimity; mindguards
o Consequences: incomplete survey of alternatives; failure to look at risks of
favoured alternative; poor information search; no contingency plans
How to prevent group think:
o Assign someone to play devil‟s advocate – the group must know that this
person is playing this role
o Leader remains impartial
o Search for feedback outside of group
o Make subgroups that suggest ideas to the rest of group
o Anonymity
Transactive memory: mechanism through which group members collectively encode,
store, and retrieve knowledge
What is an emotion?: brief psychological and physiological response to an event that is
felt subjectively and prepares a person for action
What is not an emotion?:
o Not always response to evocative stimulus
o Can persist over time hours, days etc.
o May not call for action
o Are subjective
Affective personality traits: traits that define a person she is a happy girl
Level of arousal: when presented by itself sleepiness
6 basic emotions: fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness, surprise
Complex emotions: blends of basic emotions
o Affect blends:
o Positive emotions: positively valenced emotions (mostly complex)
Love though this is contested because love can technically be
defined as lasting longer than a brief moment
o Self-conscious emotions: complex emotions elicited by the self
Shame externally caused
Guilt internally caused
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