Lecture 22 Notes

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16 Dec 2010

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Lecture 22
Prosocial Behaviour
Co-operate Dilemmas
Situations where the most beneficial action for an individual will be harmful for the collective
Commonly discussed social dilemmas:
oEscalation of Conf lict interpersonal confli ct feeds itself and escalates if one side does
not begin concession
In International Relations:
Stimulus: Country A accidentally bombs a civilian area of Country B
during a training exercise
Country Bs Response:
oBomb them back (country B is vindicated, but they are now at
work with country A)
oAccept apology (country B takes a hit in many ways, but they
maintain peaceful relations with country A)
Conf licts usually match itself
oTragedy of the Commons
A co-operative dilemma in which everyone takes from a common pool of goods
that will replenish itself if used in moderation but disappear if overused
In England they had common fields where sheep could graze. If people
let their sheeps graze all the time then the grass wouldnt grow, but if
people moderate the use then it benefits everyone and the grass
Why do we take more than our share?
Anchoring and adjustment heuristic
Desired share is used as an anchor
Does not sufficiently adjust down
Size of commons is not readily estimable
When do we take our fair share?
Both the size of the commons and the group that is sharing it are easily
The size of an equal share is explicitly stated
oPrisoners Dilemma A situation where two people must make a collectively-dependent
decision without knowing the other persons decision
A special case of John Nashs Game Theory
oStrategies that maximize outcomes:
Winner: Simple Ti t-for-Tat strategy
Co-operate on first round
Then mirror opponents response
oDefect as soon as opponent defec ts
When game is about to end (last trial):
Prosocial Behaviour
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