Study Guides (258,891)
CA (125,041)
UTSC (8,106)
Psychology (1,886)
PSYB10H3 (129)

ch. 8 - group processes

11 Pages
96 Views

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 11 pages of the document.
Chapter 8: Group Processes
What is a group?
Group: a collection of 2 or more people who interact with each other and are interdependent, in
the sense that their need and goals cause them to rely on each other
Groups are people who have came together for a common purpose
Why do people join groups?
Forming relationships with other people fulfills a number of basic human needs
In our evolutionary past, there was a substantial survival advantage to establish bonds with other
people
oPeople who bounded together were better able to hunt and grow food, find mates, and
care for children
People in all cultures are motivated to form relationships with other people and to resist the
dissolution of these relationships
Groups to which we belong even play an important role in defining who we expect to be in the
future
oFeeling a part of a university was association with positive self-esteem and well being
Group membership also plays an important role in motivating people to become involved in social
change
Those who identify most strongly with their group are most likely to engage in social action
The composition and functions of groups
Most social groups are from 2-6 members
If groups become too large, you cant interact with all of the members
oEx. the college or university you go to is not a social group because you are unlikely to
meet and interact with every student there
Another important feature of group is that the members tend ot be alike in age, sex, beliefs,
www.notesolution.com
opinions
Theres 2 reason for homogeneity of groups
oFirst, many groups attract people who are already similar before they join
oSecond, groups operate in ways that encourage similarity in the members
Social norms
social norms are powerful determinants of human behaviour but if people go against them, they
can be pressured to leave the group
Social roles
Social roles: shared expectations by group members about how particular people in the group are
supposed to behave
Norms specify how all group members should behave, roles specify how people who occupy
certain positions in the group should behave
A boss and an employee in a business occupy different roles and are expected to act in different
way in that setting
Roles can be very helpful because people know what to expct from each other
When members of a group follow a set of clearly defined roles, they tend to be satisfied and
perform well
There are potential costs to social roles
oOne cost is that people can get so into a role that their personal identity and personality
are lost
oSocial roles can be so powerful that they can take over our personal identities and we
become the role we are playing
Ex. the study where students had to take on roles of prisoners and guards
However, not all the people are cause in their social roles and unable to resist
But most of us would be unable to resist the social influences in powerful
situations and would perform acts we thought we were incapable of performing
www.notesolution.com
oAnother cost is acting inconsistently with the expectation associated with those roles
Ex. part of the role of being a man in our society involves not wearing female
attire or even carrying a purse
Gender roles
All societies have expectations about how people who occupy the roles of women and men should
behave
In many cultures, women are expected to assume the role of wife and mother with only limited
opportunities to pursue other careers
Occupations aspirations of boys and girls are influenced by traditional gender-role expectations
oEx. male students said that if they were a girl people would expect them to do womens
work like clean the house or be a secretary
oSo it showed that women are still constrained by expectations that they will pursue
traditions occupations and that child care and housework remain their responsibility
Theres problems when women are expected to everything like raising children, maintaining a
career, etc
Research shows that the more husband engage in household chores and errands, the better their
wives emotional health
Roles that people play, and the expectations that come with those roles, can have powerful effects
on feelings and behaviour
Group cohesiveness
Group cohesiveness: qualities of a group that bind members together and promote liking among
them
if a group has formed primarily for social reasons like a group of friends who like to go to the
movies together on weekends then the more cohesive the group is, the better
the more cohesive a group is, the more its members are likely to stay in the group, take part in
group activities, and try to get like-minded members
one drawback of group cohesiveness is that group members concern with maintaining good
relations can get in the way of finding good solutions to problems
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 8: Group Processes What is a group? Group: a collection of 2 or more people who interact with each other and are interdependent, in the sense that their need and goals cause them to rely on each other Groups are people who have came together for a common purpose Why do people join groups? Forming relationships with other people fulfills a number of basic human needs In our evolutionary past, there was a substantial survival advantage to establish bonds with other people o People who bounded together were better able to hunt and grow food, find mates, and care for children People in all cultures are motivated to form relationships with other people and to resist the dissolution of these relationships Groups to which we belong even play an important role in defining who we expect to be in the future o Feeling a part of a university was association with positive self-esteem and well being Group membership also plays an important role in motivating people to become involved in social change Those who identify most strongly with their group are most likely to engage in social action The composition and functions of groups Most social groups are from 2-6 members If groups become too large, you cant interact with all of the members o Ex. the college or university you go to is not a social group because you are unlikely to meet and interact with every student there Another important feature of group is that the members tend ot be alike in age, sex, beliefs, www.notesolution.com opinions Theres 2 reason for homogeneity of groups o First, many groups attract people who are already similar before they join o Second, groups operate in ways that encourage similarity in the members Social norms social norms are powerful determinants of human behaviour but if people go against them, they can be pressured to leave the group Social roles Social roles: shared expectations by group members about how particular people in the group are supposed to behave Norms specify how all group members should behave, roles specify how people who occupy certain positions in the group should behave A boss and an employee in a business occupy different roles and are expected to act in different way in that setting Roles can be very helpful because people know what to expct from each other When members of a group follow a set of clearly defined roles, they tend to be satisfied and perform well There are potential costs to social roles o One cost is that people can get so into a role that their personal identity and personality are lost o Social roles can be so powerful that they can take over our personal identities and we become the role we are playing Ex. the study where students had to take on roles of prisoners and guards However, not all the people are cause in their social roles and unable to resist But most of us would be unable to resist the social influences in powerful situations and would perform acts we thought we were incapable of performing www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document


Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit