Study Guides (283,342)
CA (135,423)
UTSC (8,869)
Psychology (1,966)
PSYB10H3 (133)

PSYB10H3 Study Guide - Equity Theory, Attachment Theory, Social Exchange Theory

18 Pages
101 Views
Fall 2009

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

This preview shows pages 1-3. Sign up to view the full 18 pages of the document.
Chapter 9: Interpersonal Attraction
Major Antecedents of Attraction
A central human motivation is self expansion – the desire to overlap or blend with another person,
so that you have access to that persons knowledge, insights, and experiences
By incorporating the other into yourself, you acquire new resources and deepen you own
experience of life
The absence of meaningful relationships with other people makes people feel lonely, worthless,
hopeless, helpless, powerless, and alienated
The Propinquity Effect
One of the determinants of interpersonal attraction is proximity so the people who we see and
interact with most often are most likely to become our friends and lovers
The thing about proximity and attraction, or propinquity effect as social psychologists call it, is
that it works on a micro level
Propinquity effect: the finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely
they are to become our friends
in a study with people in an apartment:
ojust like the propinquity effect predicted, 65% of the residents mentions people who lived
in the same building even though the other building werent far away
oit was found that 41% of the next door neighbours indicated that they were close friends,
22% of those who lived 2 doors apart did so, and only 10% of those who lived on
opposite ends of the hall did so
attraction and propinquity rely not only on actual physical distance but also on the more
psychological, functional distance
ofunctional distance is the certain aspects of architectural design that make it likely that
some people will come into contact with each other more often than with others
othose living at the foot of the stairs saw a lot of upstairs residents
oresidents in apartments 1 and 5 had more friends upstairs than did those just in the first
floor
www.notesolution.com
the propinquity effect works because of familiarity, or the mere exposure effect
mere exposure effect: the finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more we like
it
if you feel negatively toward the person then the more exposure you have to him/her, the greater
your dislike
unless our feelings towards someone are negative, familiarity generally breeds attraction and
liking
ex. of propinquity and mere exposure effect in your classroom:
owhen you see the same people throughout the semester does it increase your liking for
them? – yes
othis was tested by putting a female confederate in a classroom
othe girl did not interact with the professor or other students; she just walked in and sat in
the first row where everyone could see her
othe students were shown slides of her at the end of the semester and asked to rate on many
measures of liking and attraction
oeven though they never interacted, the more often the students seen her in class, the more
they liked her
familiarity can occur without physical exposure because of internet where you can get to know a
stranger through chat room on the computer
its been shown that people report being more comfortable revealing their true self to a partner
over the internet compared with face-to-face interaction
people also tended to report more liking for an internet partner than a partner they met in person,
even though without them knowing, they were the same person
research is showing that relationships formed over the internet resemble those developed face-to-
face in terms of quality and depth
Also, the break up rates were similar for relationships formed over the internet and face-to-face
All these research was done on people who interacted were not setting out with the intention of
forming a relationship
Therefore, because of computers, propinquity may soon no longer be a prerequisite for the
formation of relationships
www.notesolution.com
Similarity
Although propinquity does affect friendship choices, its also the case that we dont become good
friends with everyone who is near us in physical space
The fuel is similarity: attraction to people who are like us
Complementary: attraction to people who are opposite to us
Our common sense might suggest that opposites attract but research evidence shows that
similarity is the things that gets people together and not complementary
Ex. if all you know about a person whom youve never met is their opinions on several issues, the
more similar those opinions are to yours, the more youll like them
In an experiment, male students were randomly assigned to a roommate
oSo would similarity predict friendship? – yes
oThe men become friends with those who were demographically similar (eg. Shared
background) and with those who were similar in attitudes and values
Similarity in terms of attitudes and values is an important predictor of attraction in both
friendships and romantic relationships but similarity in other domains also matter
oFor ex. we are more likely to be attracted to someone who enjoys the same kinds of
leisure activities that we do
oFor some people, similarity in terms of activity preferences is a strong predictor of
attraction than is similarity of attitudes
oWere also attraction to people who are similar to us in terms of interpersonal style and
communications skills
Why is similarity so important?:
oWe tend to think that people who are similar to us will be inclined to like us
So with this assumption, we take the first steps and initiate a relationship
oPeople who are similar provide us with important social validation for our characteristics
and beliefs so they provide us with the feeling that we are right
in contrast, when someone disagrees with us on important issues, we tend not to
like the person
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Chapter 9: Interpersonal Attraction Major Antecedents of Attraction A central human motivation is self expansion the desire to overlap or blend with another person, so that you have access to that persons knowledge, insights, and experiences By incorporating the other into yourself, you acquire new resources and deepen you own experience of life The absence of meaningful relationships with other people makes people feel lonely, worthless, hopeless, helpless, powerless, and alienated The Propinquity Effect One of the determinants of interpersonal attraction is proximity so the people who we see and interact with most often are most likely to become our friends and lovers The thing about proximity and attraction, or propinquity effect as social psychologists call it, is that it works on a micro level Propinquity effect: the finding that the more we see and interact with people, the more likely they are to become our friends in a study with people in an apartment: o just like the propinquity effect predicted, 65% of the residents mentions people who lived in the same building even though the other building werent far away o it was found that 41% of the next door neighbours indicated that they were close friends, 22% of those who lived 2 doors apart did so, and only 10% of those who lived on opposite ends of the hall did so attraction and propinquity rely not only on actual physical distance but also on the more psychological, functional distance o functional distance is the certain aspects of architectural design that make it likely that some people will come into contact with each other more often than with others o those living at the foot of the stairs saw a lot of upstairs residents o residents in apartments 1 and 5 had more friends upstairs than did those just in the first floor www.notesolution.com the propinquity effect works because of familiarity, or the mere exposure effect mere exposure effect: the finding that the more exposure we have to a stimulus, the more we like it if you feel negatively toward the person then the more exposure you have to him/her, the greater your dislike unless our feelings towards someone are negative, familiarity generally breeds attraction and liking ex. of propinquity and mere exposure effect in your classroom: o when you see the same people throughout the semester does it increase your liking for them? yes o this was tested by putting a female confederate in a classroom o the girl did not interact with the professor or other students; she just walked in and sat in the first row where everyone could see her o the students were shown slides of her at the end of the semester and asked to rate on many measures of liking and attraction o even though they never interacted, the more often the students seen her in class, the more they liked her familiarity can occur without physical exposure because of internet where you can get to know a stranger through chat room on the computer its been shown that people report being more comfortable revealing their true self to a partner over the internet compared with face-to-face interaction people also tended to report more liking for an internet partner than a partner they met in person, even though without them knowing, they were the same person research is showing that relationships formed over the internet resemble those developed face-to- face in terms of quality and depth Also, the break up rates were similar for relationships formed over the internet and face-to-face All these research was done on people who interacted were not setting out with the intention of forming a relationship Therefore, because of computers, propinquity may soon no longer be a prerequisite for the formation of relationships www.notesolution.com Similarity Although propinquity does affect friendship choices, its also the case that we dont become good friends with everyone who is near us in physical space The fuel is similarity: attraction to people who are like us Complementary: attraction to people who are opposite to us Our common sense might suggest that opposites attract but research evidence shows that similarity is the things that gets people together and not complementary Ex. if all you know about a person whom youve never met is their opinions on several issues, the more similar those opinions are to yours, the more youll like them In an experiment, male students were randomly assigned to a roommate o So would similarity predict friendship? yes o The men become friends with those who were demographically similar (eg. Shared background) and with those who were similar in attitudes and values Similarity in terms of attitudes and values is an important predictor of attraction in both friendships and romantic relationships but similarity in other domains also matter o For ex. we are more likely to be attracted to someone who enjoys the same kinds of leisure activities that we do o For some people, similarity in terms of activity preferences is a strong predictor of attraction than is similarity of attitudes o Were also attraction to people who are similar to us in terms of interpersonal style and communications skills Why is similarity so important?: o We tend to think that people who are similar to us will be inclined to like us So with this assumption, we take the first steps and initiate a relationship o People who are similar provide us with important social validation for our characteristics and beliefs so they provide us with the feeling that we are right in contrast, when someone disagrees with us on important issues, we tend not to like the person www.notesolution.com o we are more likely to feel understood by those who are similar to us in a study with couples, the greater the similarity they perceived, the more understood they felt by their partner feelings of understanding predicted relationship satisfaction o the rewards of interaction explanation offers another reason why similarity leads to attraction if a person feels the same way we do on important issues, we assume it would be enjoyable to spend time with them its not very pleasant to interact with someone who disagrees with you on everything o therefore, the desire to be liked, understood, validated and the desire to have an enjoyable interaction plays a role in boosting the attractiveness of a likeminded person and diminishing the attractiveness of someone who is dissimilar o theres also evidence that attraction can lead to perceptions of similarity so in other words, the more attracted we are to someone, the more similar we assume that person is to us Reciprocal Liking reciprocal liking: when you like someone and that person also likes you o this is one of the determinants of interpersonal attraction liking is so powerful that it can even make up for the absence of similarity o in an experiment, when a young woman expressed interest in male research participants simply by maintaining eye contact, leaning toward them, and listening attentively, the men expressed great liking for her despite the fact that they knew she disagreed with them on important issues also, reciprocal liking can come about because of a self-fulfilling prophecy o the individuals who were told that their partners liked them behaved in more likeable ways with their partner; they disclosed more about themselves, disagreed less about the topic under discussion and generally behaved in a warmer, more pleasant manner than did those individuals who thought they were disliked o as a result of this, the partners ended up liking them more so than did the partners of www.notesolution.com
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit