PSYB10H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Gordon Allport, Statistical Significance, Social Proof

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Published on 7 Oct 2014
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PSYB10 Midterm Review
Overview and Methods of Social Psychology
Definition of Social Psychology: Social psychology uses scientific methods to “understand
and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the
actual, imagined, or implied presence of other human beings.” –Gordon Allport, 1985
ABCs of Social Psychology
oAffect: Emotions, feelings, and mood
oBehaviour: Verbal and nonverbal action
oCognition: Thought, sensation, perception, processing, and memory
History of Social Psychology
oAristotle, Machiavelli, Darwin
oWundt (“Father of Experimental Psychology”), James (“Father of American
Psychology”), and Lewin (“Father of Social Psychology”)
Dyadic Interactions: Interaction between two people
Hypothetico-deductive Scientific Method/ Experimental Method
oHypothesis: A statement about something that may be true; a tentative idea about
how two or more variable relate to each other that is waiting for evidence to support
or refute it
oTheory: Consists of a system of logical ideas proposed to explain a particular
phenomenon and its relationship to other phenomena
oDependent Variable: The variable that you want to be able to predict (outcome)
oIndependent Variable: The variable that you think will predict your DV (predictor)
Methods of social psych
oBasic research: Attempts to answer fundamental questions about the nature of
behaviour written in the form of a journal article submitted to a scientific journal for
peer review
oApplied research: Conducted to address practical problems and potential solutions
oOperational Definition: Definition of a concept that specific the operation used to
measure or manipulate the concept
oConstruct Validity: Evaluate the adequacy of the operational definition.
oQualitative and Quantitative research
Research Designs
oCorrelational Designs: 2 DVs that we consider in a correlation analysis to be
“outcomes” to reflect the lack of causal conclusions that can be drawn; uses
correlation test
oQuasi-experimental designs: A defined IV and DV with no experimental
manipulation; uses T-Test
Subject variable: A term sometimes used to denote a variable that groups
participants on some pre-existing characteristics (e.g., sex, ethnicity). It is
often treated as an independent variable in experimental designs, despite the
lack of random assignment
oExperimental Designs: Direct manipulation and control of variables, then response
or result is observed; uses t-test, regression, ANOVA, and Bayesian methods
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oMeta-analysis: A set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by
combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and
strength of particular effects
Random assignment: A method of assigning participants to the various conditions of an
experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any
of the conditions
Internal validity: Evaluate the extent that it was the independent variable that caused the
changes or differences in the dependent variable
External validity: Evaluate the extent that the results can generalize to other populations
and settings.
Mundane realism: The degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and
events in the real world
Deception: Any time a researcher misleads participants into believing something about the
study that is not true
Confederate: Accomplice of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an
experiment, acts as if he or she is also a participant
Informed consent: In research ethics, the principle that participants in an experiment by
informed in advance of all aspects of the research that might influence their decision to
participate
Statistical Analyses
oStatistical significance: The mathematical likelihood that an association is not due
to change, judged by criterion set by the analyst (often that the probability is less
than 5 out of 100 or p < 0.05)
oCorrelation coefficient: A statistical measure of the strength and direction of the
association between two variables; ranges from -1.0 to +1.0
oT-Test: A statistical examination of two population means. A two-sample t-test
examines whether two samples are different and is commonly used when the
variances of two normal distributions are unknown and when an experiment uses a
small sample size.
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Social Cognition (Lecture 1)
Social Cognition: The study of how people perceive, remember, and interpret information
about themselves and others
Social Objects: A physical object that has the ability to engage in social cognition
Automatic cognition: Things that happen very quickly and rapidly
Controlled cognition: Reasoned thinking
Perception: Becoming aware of something through the senses
oPre-Attentive Processes: Rapid processing (less than 250 ms) of complex scene
(mutli-element display of information)
Something “catches your eye” or “pops out at you”
Processing/Encoding: Selecting information from the environment and storing it in memory
oEncoding: Selecting information from the environment and storing it in memory
oAttention: Selective perception
oSchemas: Mental structures used to organize knowledge about the social world
around themes or subjects
Self-fulfilling prophecy: The process by which one’s expectations about a
person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that conform those
expectations
Storage & Knowledge Retrieval
oPrototype Theory of Categorization: Objects are classified based on similarity to a
prototype
Semantic Network: Related concepts are stored closely together in memory
Spreading Activation: Thinking about one concept will “activate,” “prime,” or
make “accessible” a related concept and inhibit unrelated concepts
Retrieval: The extent to which concepts are at the forefront of your mind
oAccessibility: The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of
another concept
Thought suppression
oPriming: Priming is the implicit memory effect in which exposure to a stimulus
influences response to a subsequent stimulus. It can occur following perceptual,
semantic, or conceptual stimulus repetition
Algorithms: Mechanical, step-by-step process for arriving at an answer  slow and
deliberate  highly successful due to low error rates
Heuristics: Mental shortcuts  fast and efficient  error prone
oAvailability Heuristic: A mental shortcut whereby people base a judgement on the
ease with which they can bring something to mind
oRepresentativeness Heuristic: A mental shortcut whereby people classify
something according to how similar it is to a typical case
Base rate bias: The tendency to underestimate the impact of base rate on
accurate prediction
oAnchoring & Adjustment Heuristic
Anchoring: The mental shortcut whereby people make judgements using the
first answer that came to them as an “anchor”
Adjustment: The bias whereby even when people learn their anchor is
untrustworthy, they do not adjust sufficiently away from it
oSimulation Heuristic: A mental shortcut whereby people overestimate the
probability of an event if they can imagine or “stimulate” it in their minds
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Document Summary

Overview and methods of social psychology: definition of social psychology: and explain how the thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of other human beings. gordon allport, 1985. Outcomes to reflect the lack of causal conclusions that can be drawn; uses correlation test: quasi-experimental designs: a defined iv and dv with no experimental manipulation; uses t-test. Subject variable: a term sometimes used to denote a variable that groups participants on some pre-existing characteristics (e. g. , sex, ethnicity). A two-sample t-test examines whether two samples are different and is commonly used when the variances of two normal distributions are unknown and when an experiment uses a small sample size. Semantic network: related concepts are stored closely together in memory. Thought suppression: priming: priming is the implicit memory effect in which exposure to a stimulus influences response to a subsequent stimulus.

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