Introduction to Social Psychology
Lecture 1: Methods and Social Cognition
Correlational Designs: Proper Interpretation, if you have a Correlational study, you can say that the two aspects co-vary
each other and predict each other but not causation.
Theory of mind: to predict what somebody else is thinking and to know that your thoughts are not their thoughts. (occurs
around 3-4 years if age)
Lay theory: what people in general think or believe
Social Cognition: controlled cognition for example taking a test and focusing. Automatic cognition is when you think about doctors,
nurses come to mind automatically.
Pre-attentive processes: something that catches your attention following by possible actions, for example, someone pulls
out a gun, it catches your attention and you hide for cover.
Pilot study: where they develop the stimuli, for example, Snyder’s initial Self-fulfilling Prophecy method
Semantic network: the categorization of different things and its relationships in your mind. For example, robins are related
to birds whereas ostrich would be further related.
Accessibility and Priming: recently thought about things are more easily related to current social situations. Wegner’s
study on Thought Repression, demonstrating the very act of saying “I’m not thinking about it” becomes hyper-accessible.
Ways you can process information and social world: Algorithms, and Heuristics
Algorithms: has to go in order, have to actively use mental resources (effortful) but low error rate. It is successful but not
Heuristics: more common strategy, such as schemas. Thinking about more than one thing / making more than one
association at one time.
Availability Heuristic: example, when she is trying to think how frequent something is going to occur / broad questions
like how was your summer. These will be based on accessibility. This tends to result in overestimating their frequency.
o For example, when you walk down a dark ally, you are afraid of being murdered rather than getting TB. This is
because murder is more frequency seen on news rather than TB (thus being more accessible) when in reality TB
incidence rates are much higher than murder.
Representativeness Heuristic: related to prototype matching, for example, there is a group of 70% marketing executives
and 30% computer engineers. Mia is a person in this group, she play war craft, and has glasses. People say she is a
computer engineer. She seems to represent the computer category
Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic: you anchor on what you want to do and adjust based on how you think the context
will affect you but in actuality, you do not efficient enough and thus predict the wrong things
Simulation Heuristic: for example, you go to a hockey game, you move up to an empty seat. But the original seat you
were at won 1 million dollars. This shows counterfactual thinking, replaying what could have happened but what didn’t
Exam Question 1: D, all the other are Quesi-Experimental Designs.
Lecture 2: The Self Part 1
Prior to 1 years old, children are not self aware
Minimal Self: think about this in terms of double simulation, for example, when you touch yourself on your arm, you
feel the feeling on your arm and also on your hand of touching your arm. However when you touch something else,
you only feel the object, being a distinct object from the environment.
Objectified Self: more advanced form of self awareness, once you’ve become a social object. Animals have this in
order to protect themselves. The ability to reflect on what’s going on with the self.
Symbolic Self: uniquely human.
The self, it inherently social meaning without others there is no need of the self. We think about the self in relation to
Self schema is similar to the semantic network with the self being the centre point
Twenty Statements Test (TST) is a explicit personality test