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Chapter 12 Study Questions


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB10H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Social Psychology, 4Ce (Aronson/Wilson/Akert/Fehr)
Chapter 12 Prejudice: Causes and Cures
Ch. 12-01 When the authors assert that prejudice is a ubiquitous social phenomenon, they mean that
A) in one way or another, prejudice affects all of us.
B)prejudice is destructive and difficult to eradicate.
C)prejudice is especially likely to be found in Western cultures.
D)stereotypes are applied unfairly by members of the dominant group.
E)prejudice is more likely in dominant groups.
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 373-374
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 12-02 _______ refers to a negative attitude toward a distinguishable group of people, based solely on their
group membership.
A)Stereotypes
B)Racism
C)Prejudice
D)Modern racism
E)Discrimination
Answer: C
Type: MC Page Ref: 375
Skill: Factual
Ch. 12-03 Prejudice refers to both the general attitude structure and the _______ component of a negative attitude
toward a group of people.
A)affective
B)dominant
C)cognitive
D)behavioural
E) illustrative
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 375
Skill: Factual
Ch. 12-04 Although psychologists usually refer to prejudice only in a(n) _______ sense, it is possible for a person
to have a(n) _______ prejudice about a particular group.
A)diffuse.....specific
B)positive.....negative
C)specific.....diffuse
D)benign.....destructive
E)negative.....positive
Answer: E
Type: MC Page Ref: 375
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 12-05 Which of the following best exemplifies the concept "prejudice" as used by social psychologists?
A)Barbara believes that women are smarter than men.
B)At parties Lynne tends to seek out people who, like her, are psychology majors.
C)Glen believes that high school dropouts are unintelligent.
D)Kevin feels mistrustful of and uncomfortable around people from the Middle East.
E)Maria seldom hangs out with people who are not Catholic.
Answer: D
Type: MC Page Ref: 375
Skill: Applied
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Ch. 12-06 _______ is to affect as _______ is to cognition.
A)Prejudice.....discrimination
B)Stereotype.....prejudice
C)Discrimination......prejudice
D)Discrimination.....stereotype
E)Prejudice.....stereotype
Answer: E
Type: MC Page Ref: 375-376
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 12-07 Which of the following examples best captures the social-psychological concept of a stereotype?
A)Nicole avoids homeless people on the street.
B)Arlene refuses to enter an elevator in which men are riding.
C)Cindy does not have any friends outside of her sorority.
D)Mitch believes that women are seductive, duplicitous, and not to be trusted.
E)Aaron becomes uncomfortable when a man sits too close to him.
Answer: D
Type: MC Page Ref: 375-376
Skill: Applied
Ch. 12-08 The term _______ was coined by journalist Walter Lippman (1922), who referred to these phenomena
as "the little pictures we carry around in our heads."
A)stereotype
B)heuristics
C)cognitive focus
D)generalization
E)prejudgments
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 376
Skill: Factual
Ch. 12-09 Stereotypes are the _______ component of a negative attitude toward a group of people.
A)cognitive
B)specific
C)behavioural
D)denotative
E)affective
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 376
Skill: Factual
Ch. 12-10 Shane believes that women are more dependent, more nurturing, more intuitive, and less rational than
men. These are examples of Shane's _______ women.
A)stereotypes about
B)negative affect toward
C)negative behaviour toward
D)prejudice toward
E)discrimination against
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 376
Skill: Applied
Ch. 12-11 _______ are generalizations about a group of people in which identical characteristics are ascribed to all
members of the group, regardless of within-group variations.
A)Schemas
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B)Stereotypes
C)Negative stereotypes
D) In-group schemata
E) In-group biases
Answer: B
Type: MC Page Ref: 376
Skill: Factual
Ch. 12-12 Stereotyping is a way of _______ the complex information around us, and thus is sometimes _______.
A) justifying.....reassuring
B) fully analyzing.....slow
C)simplifying.....adaptive
D) judging.....decisive
E)coding.....destructive
Answer: C
Type: MC Page Ref: 376
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 12-13 Social psychologist Gordon Allport referred to stereotyping as "the law of least effort." By this he meant
that
A)stereotyping is a way to simplify a complex world.
B)people are cognitively lazy.
C)negative stereotypes are motivated, but positive stereotypes are not.
D) it takes a tremendous amount of effort to abandon our stereotypes.
E) lazy people tend to be hold the most stereotypes.
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 376
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 12-14 When Gordon Allport (1954) described stereotyping as "the law of least effort," he was suggesting that
stereotypes arise
A) to help us conserve cognitive energy.
B) from personal experience.
C)because we are not motivated to fully think through important issues.
D) to justify objectionable actions quickly and easily.
E)at the service of the ego.
Answer: A
Type: MC Page Ref: 376
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 12-15 Stereotypes are harmful to the extent they
A)exist.
B)are based on experience.
C)are overgeneralized to members of a group.
D) require cognitive effort.
E) reduce cognitive effort.
Answer: C
Type: MC Page Ref: 376
Skill: Conceptual
Ch. 12-16 Stereotypes are beneficial to the extent that they
A)are selectively applied.
B)minimize differences within a group of people.
C)simplify a complex social world.
D)are generally accurate.
E)are reserved for ambiguous situations.
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