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PSYB10H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Social Cognition, Psychophysiology, Verbal Behavior

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Elizabeth Page- Gould
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Psyb10 midterm study sheet
Overview and methods of social psychology
Definition of social psychology: Uses scientific methods “to understand and explain how the
thought, feeling and behaviour of individuals are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied
presence of other human beings.”
ABC‟s of psychology = Thoughts, Feelings, Behaviors...
Affect: emotions, feelings, mood
Behavior: verbal & nonverbal action
Cognition: thought, sensation, perception, processing, memory
Video: 2 confusion monkeys who love grapes but don‟t mind cucumbers. They each receive tokens & can
see what the other monkey is getting....
Basically, when both receive grape/cucumber, all is happy. When one gets a grape & the other gets a
cucumber, the one getting a cucumber wont accept it because he does not like the value of the cucumber
when compared to the grape.
-Methods in Social Psych: Social psychological toolkit & Research & Statistical Methods
- Social Psych Toolkit: Self-report surveys, Reaction time tasks, priming, nonverbal/verbal behaviour &
neuroscience & psychophysiology
Self-report: pencil & paper, computer, interview
Reaction Time Tasks: VERY common, especially in social cognition. Sit infront of computer & press
buttons to see the speed you can do certain tasks. This came from the late 1800‟s when a Dutch
psychologists figured out that a harder task will lead to a longer time. Ie dividing versus adding. The
longer time spent concepts are more distantly attached. Obtained through video/audio, computer...
Priming: Try to elicit a mood in a person, or create a certain concept in ones mind. Can be subliminal
(something you wont see) or can be explicit (flashing the fearful ladies face at a person & expecting the
person to feel fear)
Nonverbal/ Verbal: Behavior is a hallmark in social psychology. The man has a complex facial reaction
going on & it can be obtained in many ways; video (good way thanks to rewinding), audio recording, &
close observation (1-way mirror) but this can be imprecise because you can not rewind & go back to it
like you can with video.
Neuroscience: 3 main things used: fMRI (measures brain activity), brain-damaged patients (ie certain
neurological disorder; accident in motorcycle accident & you lose use of your frontal cortex... people
loose their basic functioning because they lose use of their functions & can not differentiate cues given to
them by people. Their view of the social world is changed.) & third, EEG...

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Psychophysiology: you can put a bunch of electrodes on people, or have them drool & then look at stress
responses. Plain Taboo. Stress hormones & sex hormones are seen in saliva..
Research Statistical Methods
Hypothetico deductive method: have a hypothesis & deduce it ...revise it aswell. But to create your
hypothesis, you must go through the 5 steps: Examine past knowledge/research, form a theory, form an
observational hypothesis (dont just study anger in broad terms, focus on one thing such as facial reaction
when angry), test hypothesis, revise theory
Variable types:
Dependent variable (DV) = outcome
Independent variable (IV) = predictor; only implies causality when it is manipulated! Otherwise only
establishes a relationship.
3 designs: Correlational, Quasi-experimental, experimental
Correlational: 2 DV variables. It is looking for a general relationship between the 2 variables. There is
no experimental manipulation, but there should be random sampling.
Ie People who eat icecream more drown more. But you cant imply causation, you can only say they are
related as they appear at the same time.
Designs include correlation, regression, or Bayesian
If you have a correlation, you can say the 2 predict each other or relate, but you CAN NOT say one
causes the other (Correlation does not imply causation)
You have an ID & a DV, but your IV is not manipulated. You only have “KNOWN GROUPS” which is
something like gender.
It is called quasi because we do not manipulate the variable. This includes ethnicity or gender because we
don‟t assign these. You can only say they relate to each other (males & females are the same in this or
that area..)
There is a control group because you have to compare it. & this is done through stratified random
Video on theory of mind studies (Age group 3 & 5): When a 3 yr old sees that there are pencils in an
m&m package & is asked what would your dad think is inside this? He would say pencils. But a 5yr old
would say m&m‟s because he knows his dad doesn‟t know about the pencils inside the m&ms package.
Proper interpretation is covariance & prediction, but NO CAUSALITY. You can discuss differences b/w
groups & suggest why these relations happen, but you cant imply causality.

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Experimental Designs:
Manipulated IV & random assignment to the conditions. & there must be a control group
MDMA (aka ecsttacy) where ppl generally believe that ecstasy makes you more intact with other people.
This was tested by giving people MDMA & giving others a placebo (to increase your heart rate). The 6
basic faces were looked at (on slides) & people had to judge what emotions the faces were expressing. He
found ppl were not more accurate when judging the faces when on MDMA . they were less accurate when
compared to the control group when judging anger. Therefore it shows that ecstasy keeps ppl wanting to
relate more to others by judging them un-angry.
Analysed through regression, ANOVA, & Bayesian.
Big difference: IV causes DV
Social cognition
Social Cognition: THINKING about social cognition
Ie dropping a non-social object (a pen) & judging what would happen relative to its weight & how it
A social object is different. If prof was to drop a person, she wouldn‟t be able to predict what would
happen because the person will react differently judging by their cognitive structure.
There‟s automatic & controlled cognition.
Controlled is when there‟s a test infront of you & you think you must focus so you do.
Automatic cognition would be when you think about nurses when you think about doctors. You don‟t
intentionally think about nurses but it just comes up in your mind because the 2 are related.
The Basics:
Perception becoming aware of something in the senses; perceiving something in the world.
This includes pre-attentive processes. A complex scene is anything with a lot of visual objects (ie a
lecture hall) Rapid is less than 250 milseconds.
Essential pre-attentive processes includes when there is a complex room but your focus is only on the gun
in one persons hand.
Gaze detection: You normally look straight at the face that is looking at you.
..after you perceive something, you have to ENCODE it.
Encoding: selecting info from the environment & storing it in memory. You wont remember everything
in a scene, but mostly the things you focused on the most.
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