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[PSYB20H3] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (37 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB20H3
Professor
Angelina Paolozza
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
PSYB20H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 01. PSYB20
Introduction to Child Development
The Study of Child Development
Child development: study of systematic processes of change and stability in human
children
Look at ways in which children change from conception adolescence, as well as
characteristics that remain fairly stable
Periods of Development
Social construction: concept about what is real based on societally shared perceptions or
assumptions
5 periods: Prenatal, Infancy & Toddlerhood, Early Childhood, Middle Childhood and
Adolescence
Domains of Development
All three domains of development are interrelated
1) Physical development: Growth of body & brain, including biological and physiological
patterns of change in sensory capacities, motor skills and health.
2) Cognitive development: Pattern of change in mental abilities, such as learning,
attention, memory, language thinking, reasoning and creativity.
3) Psychosocial development: Pattern of change in emotions, personality and social
relationships.
Five Periods of Child Development
Age Period
Physical Developments
Cognitive Development
Psychosocial Development
Prenatal Period
(conception to
birth)
Conception occurs by
normal fertilization or
other means. The
genetic endowment
interacts with
environmental
influences from the
start.
Basic body structures
and organs from; brain
growth spurt begins.
Vulnerability to
environmental
influences is great.
Ability to learn and
remember and to
respond to sensory
stimuli are developing.
Fetus responds to
mother’s voice and
develops a preference
for it.
Infancy &
Toddlerhood
(birth to age 3)
All senses and body
systems operate at
birth to varying
degrees. The brain
grows in complexity
and influence.
Ability to learn and
ability to remember
are present, even in
the early weeks.
Use of symbols and
ability to solve
Attachment to parents
and others forms.
Self-awareness develops
Shift from dependence to
autonomy begins
Interest in other children
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Chapter 01. PSYB20
Physical growth and
development of motor
skills are rapid (most
rapid in the lifespan)
problems develop by
end of 2nd year.
Comprehension and
use of language
develop rapidly.
increases.
Early Childhood
(ages 3 to 6)
Growth is steady;
appearance becomes
more slender and
proportions more adult
like
Appetite diminishes,
and sleep problems are
common
Handedness appears;
fine and gross motor
skills and strength
improve
Thinking is somewhat
egocentric, but
understanding of other
people’s perspective
grows.
Cognitive immaturity
results in some
illogical ideas about
the world.
Memory & language
improve.
Intelligence becomes
more predictable.
Kindergarten
experience is common.
Self-concept and
understanding of
emotions become more
complex; self-esteem is
global.
Independence, initiative,
and self-control increase.
Gender identity develops
Play becomes more
imaginative, elaborate,
and usually more social.
Altruism, aggression and
fearfulness are common.
Family is still the focus
of social life, but other
children become more
important.
Middle Childhood
(ages 6 to 11)
Growth slows
Strength and athletic
skills improve
Respiratory illnesses
are common, but health
is generally better than
at any other time in
lifespan
Egocentrism
diminishes. Children
begin to think logically
but concretely.
Memory & language
skills increase.
Cognitive gains permit
children to benefit
from formal schooling.
Some children show
special educational
needs and strengths.
Self-concept becomes
more complex, affecting
self-esteem.
Coregulation reflects
gradual shift in control
from parents to child.
Peers assume greater
importance.
Adolescence (ages
11 to about 20)
Physical growth and
other changes are rapid
and profound
Reproductive maturity
occurs
Major health risks arise
from behavioural
issues, such as eating
disorders & drug abuse
Ability to think
abstractly & use
scientific reasoning
develops.
Immature thinking
persists in some
attitudes &
behaviours.
Education focuses on
preparation for college
or vocation.
Search for identity,
including sexual identity,
becomes central.
Relationships with
parents are generally
good.
Peer group may exert a
positive or negative
influence.
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