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Study Guide

[PSYB30H3] - Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam (83 pages long!)


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB30H3
Professor
Marc A Fournier
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
PSYB30H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Personality Psychology
** Study for final exam more than term tests
Lecture 1
Emerging adult: the middle of childhood and adulthood
Scientific Theories:
Constructs (define)
Rules (linked)
Hypothesis (test)
Non-scientific Theories:
Astrology: system of personality theories (characteristics people should
have)
Palmistry: hand reading
Our implicit personality theories: trying to understand oneself
o Implicit but can be formalized and made into a explicit theory
Dependency is unhealthy an example of formalizing an informal theory
Construct: observing cues to come up with construct
Rules: linking health and well being
o Well being consists of: positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction
The more you show of dependency the less you show of well
being
Hypothesis: the more you show of dependency the less you show of well
being, these are tested through scales
Statistical Concepts
Variation extent of spread in a series of values
o Variance: expected value any observation is likely to have (average
square difference from the mean)
o Standard deviation: square root of the variance (how many
differences on a measure)
Co-variation reflects the likely hood that two variables go together
o Correlation coefficients (r): standardized index of how two variables
relates to one another (the number ranges from -1 to +1
+1: variables are related to one another (one factors goes up
the other goes up_
-1 coefficient: one variable geos up the other variables goes
down
Effect Size & Statistical Significance:
o Effect size: r=0.1 (small), r=0.3 (medium), r=0.5 (large)
o Statistical significance: should produce p values less than 0.5 (no
more than a 1/20 chance)
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Reliability & Validity Coefficient
o Reliability coefficient: test with itself
Consistency of measurement (consistent value)
0.7 0.9 (reliable about 0.7)
o Validity coefficient: test with criterion
Accuracy of measurement (does the test predict what it is
supposed to)
0.1-0.3
For something to be valid you need to have reliability
The more reliable a test is the more likely you are to show the validity
Criteria to judge theories
All tests need to have these criteria’s:
Coherent, testable and empirically valid
Comprehensive and parsimonious (simplicity)
Useful and generative (discussion, debate, data)
Lecture Two:
Part I. Evolutionary Theory
The Evolutionary Process:
Darwin three words of evolution
Variation (in design)
o All organisms are different
Inheritance
o Passing certain features onto offspring (heritable)
Selection
o Our designs impact our rate of reproduction
o Differences in design create differences in reproduction
Evolutionary Processes: Natural Selection
Natural selection: evolution of adaptive characteristics because of the survival
benefits bestowed on those who have them
Natural selection = survival
Examples: giraffe and their neck’s
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