PSYB30H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Institutional Review Board, Lexical Analysis, Carl Jung

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Published on 20 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
PSYB30 - PERSONALITY
MIDTERM NOTES
Chapter 1: Who Am I? Understanding the Building Blocks of Personality
- Early personality psychologists mused that there are aspects of personality universal to all
people, shared by similar people, and completely unique to individuals
- There is a universal desire for actualization (be who we are meant to be)
- Though we share same mechanisms, characteristics and experiences, the way the building
blocks form together makes each of us unique.
- Personality Psychology: The scientific study of what makes us who we are (identifying
similarity and differences and explains how they are that way)
- The individual is more than a sum of its parts
- To understand personality we need to understand:
o Traits: person’s typical way of thinking, feeling and acting in various situations at
different times
o Genetics: study of how genes and environment affect personality and behaviour
o Neuroscience: study of how our brain and nervous system affects personality
(some of this study suggest that extroversion and neuroticism and impulsivity
related to physiological and neurological differences at birth)
o Self and Identity: our own sense of who we are (self-concept, self-esteem ,social
identity)
o Intrapsychic Foundations of Personality: Looking into our own conscious and
unconscious thoughts and feelings that make up our personality
o Regulation and Motivation: Self Determination Theory: how people adjust their
responses to the environment; self determination theory says when people feel
free to choose, are competent, and connected to people around them they will be
motivated and self-directed for the task at hand.
o Cognitive Foundations: how people perceive and think about info about
themselves and the world.
- Belmont Report:
o Respect for Persons: allowing people to choose to participate or not
o Beneficence: do no harm to participant
o Justice: benefits and burdens of research participants must be shared equally
among potential populations
- Common Rule: institutions must establish and maintain an Institutional Review Board
Chapter 2: Personality Trait: A Good Theory
- Observers in a room often very accurate when guessing the personality of who lives there
- Temporary states, attitudes and physical attributes not considered traits
- Traits are non physical
- Some psychologists view traits as descriptive summaries of behaviour;
Others view them as internal, causal properties (capacity that is present even when not
being expressed)
- Idiographic Approach: goal to understand the personality of a single individual with all
their quirks or idiosyncrasies and characteristics that make them unique.
- Nomothetic Approach: goal to discover universals that can apply to everyone
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PSYB30 - PERSONALITY
MIDTERM NOTES
- The Great Nomothetic Search for Human Universals: search for the right number of
universal traits and how we should organize them
- Allport started battle between nomothetic and idiographic approaches; but argued that
individuality cannot be studied by science
- Eysenck hypothesized human personality to be organized in hierarchy (pyramid) [type
level trait level habitual Response Specific Response
- Allport central traits (main describers of you); secondary traits (less consistently
displayed); cardinal traits (single trait that dominates personality; unusual)
- Theoretical Approach- When personality psychologists start with a theory or even
common wisdom about human personality
o Machiavelianism = Manipulativeness
o Carl Jung = hypothesized that people differ in how they evaluate info (thinking
type and feeling type)
o Freud = theory that problems weaning or toilet training later affect adult
personality
- Lexical Approach: Explores a language and identifies number of synonyms that describe
personality
o If the word occurs many times it is important to the culture; if the same trait is
found across many different languages it may qualify as universal
- Factor Analysis: statistical technique that identifies meaningful underlying structure
among variables
o Eignvalue: variance in answers between participants
o Factor Loadings: how strongly each question fits a given factor
- Allport used lexical analysis to identify 4504 trait terms
Cattell used factor analysis on them to get 16
Others built on that to get the Big 5
o Personality Research Form; California Q-Set, and Myer-Briggs Type Indicator all
include the 5 factors
- Eysenck convinced there were fundamental differences between people; so he
described personality types in terms of physical or biological differences
o Identified broad dimensions of personality: Psychoticism (tough-
minded/anticsocial), Extraversion (outgoing), Neuroticism (negative emotionality
and reactivity)
o Also identified narrow traits associated with each factor.
o One problem is most people feel important traits are missing
- Five Factor Model: (NEO-PI-R: Each factor made up of 6 facets)
o Openness,
o Conscientiousness, (Degree of organization (Physical and Mental))
o Extraversion - Introversion, (How one energetically engages with social world)
o Agreeableness, (Quality of interpersonal relationships)
o Neuroticism Emotional Stability(how well someone adjusts to slings and arrows
of daily life)
- One Factor Solution: General Personality Factor
o According to Musek this factor includes all positive aspects of the five
o GPF Encompasses two factors of Alpha (emotional stability to get along with
others) and Beta (flexibility to deal with change, challenges and demands)
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Document Summary

Early personality psychologists mused that there are aspects of personality universal to all people, shared by similar people, and completely unique to individuals. There is a universal desire for actualization (be who we are meant to be) Though we share same mechanisms, characteristics and experiences, the way the building blocks form together makes each of us unique. Personality psychology: the scientific study of what makes us who we are (identifying similarity and differences and explains how they are that way) The individual is more than a sum of its parts. Belmont report: respect for persons: allowing people to choose to participate or not, beneficence: do no harm to participant, justice: benefits and burdens of research participants must be shared equally among potential populations. Common rule: institutions must establish and maintain an institutional review board. Observers in a room often very accurate when guessing the personality of who lives there. Temporary states, attitudes and physical attributes not considered traits.

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