Lecture Slide Notes:
Level I. Personality Traits/Dispositions “Sketching the Outline”
oGeneral, internal, and comparative dispositions accounting for the
consistencies we perceive or expect in behavior across situations and time
Continuity vs. Change of Traits over Time
Level II. Characteristic Adaptations “Filling in the Details”
oAdaptations to the motivational, cognitive, and developmental challenges that
people confront across the life span
Goals & Strivings
The Self & Social Cognition
Stages of Life-Span Development
Level III. Life Stories “Integrating a Life”
oInternalized and evolving narratives of the self that integrate past, present,
and future to provide life with a sense of unity and purpose
Imagery, Theme, Character
Standards of Good Life-Story Form
Psychotherapy as Revision of the Life Story
•Constructs, Theories, & Testable Hypotheses
•Explicitly defined CONSTRUCTS:
•Theories consist of CONSTRUCTS that organize referents, or
observations of reality.
•Linked by correspondence RULES:
•Constructs are linked via CORRESPONDENCE RULES that state the
relationships between them.
•Specifying testable HYPOTHESES:
•Correspondence rules should be stated explicitly to allow TESTABLE
HYPOTHESES to be derived from them.
Formalizing informal theories is starting from a basic perspective such as
Dependency and reassurance-seeking – feelings of loneliness – fears of
abandonment. [A tree like sprouting figure]. Correspondence rule is combining
two branches with limbs to form one; dependency with personal health correlate to
one main one.
You may find that the negative affects and dependency do not correlate with one
another as you might have believed. [Dependency items (DEQ) - // Negative affect
•Desiderata for a Theory of Personality
Comprehensive and Parsimonious
•The Legacy of Sigmund Freud
Freud provided the first comprehensive theory of personality consisting of 1.
Structure (id ego superego) 2. Dynamics (conscious vs. unconscious) 3.
Development (oralanalphalliclatency genital).
Freud & the Psychosexual Stages
oThe Libido [Sexual drive].
The Oral Stage – intial 18 months aft birth/ mouth-lips-tongue. Emrg
of the ID.
The Anal Stg- btwn 1 ½ & 3 – anus –self-mastery/autonomy. Emrg of
The Phallic Stg. – 3 to 5. Genitals. Oedipus/Electra complexes
[explain the maturation of human female. It is said to be the female
counterpart to the Oedipus complex in males]. Emrg of the
The Latency Stage- From age 6 to puberty, the pregenital forms of
libido are repressed
The Genital Stage from puberty onward, the libido is linked to
Freud & the Structure of Personality
oDefense mechanisms are like ANXIETY / REPRESSION “1st line” and
Supporting defenses such as denial/projection/sublimation.
Freud & the Topography of Personality
oEros (Life) & Thanatos (Death)
oErogenous Zones & Libidinal Organization
LECTURE 2: Human Evolution.
•Part I. The Structure of Evolutionary Theory
The Evolutionary Process
Personality traits/dispositions sketching the outline : general, internal, and comparative dispositions accounting for the consistencies we perceive or expect in behavior across situations and time. continuity vs. change of traits over time. Characteristic adaptations filling in the details : adaptations to the motivational, cognitive, and developmental challenges that people confront across the life span. Life stories integrating a life : internalized and evolving narratives of the self that integrate past, present, and future to provide life with a sense of unity and purpose. psychotherapy as revision of the life story. Part ii: constructs, theories, & testable hypotheses, explicitly defined constructs: Theories consist of constructs that organize referents, or observations of reality. Linked by correspondence rules: constructs are linked via correspondence rules that state the relationships between them, specifying testable hypotheses: www. notesolution. com, correspondence rules should be stated explicitly to allow testable. Formalizing informal theories is starting from a basic perspective such as.