PSYB30H3 Study Guide - Extraversion And Introversion, Parental Investment, Raymond Cattell

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Lecture Slide Notes: CHAPTER 3-4.
Theories
Scientists
Questions or Uncertainties
Ch. 3: Gender, Society, & Culture
John B. Watson (1878-1958):
UCS UCR
CS CR
Watson applied Pavlovian techniques to a 9-month old child to demonstrate
that a complex emotional response (fear) could be learned through the
principles of classical conditioning.
Thorndikes Law of Effectthe effect produced by a behavior determines the
behaviors future probability of occurrence
The strength of behaviorism was its reliance upon i.) observation, ii.)
experimentation, and iii.) simplicity of explanation
Bandura + Social Learning
oEmergent Properties:
Intentions have causal (contributing) properties
oTriadic Reciprocal (Commonality) Causation:
Person (P), Environment (E), Behavior (B)
oFortuitous Determinants in Causal Structures:
There is an element of chance in peoples lives
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Fundamental Human Capabilities:
I. The Symbolizing Capability
oHumans have an extraordinary capacity to represent events and their
relationships in symbolic form.
oRather than solve problems solely through performance, we can
instead test possible solutions symbolically in thought.
II. The Vicarious Capability
oHumans have a capacity for observational learning that enables them
to expand their knowledge and competencies through modeling the
behavior of others.
III. The Forethought Capability
oHumans have the capacity of forethoughtthe ability to bring
anticipated outcomes to bear on current activities. We act out of
anticipation of reinforcement that we have either directly experienced
or vicariously experienced through others.
IV. The Self-Regulatory Capability
oSuccessful human development requires the substitution of internal
regulation and direction for external sanctions (self-regulation).
oSub-functions of self-regulation:
Self-Observation
Judgmental Processes
Self-Reaction
V. The Self-Reflective Capability
oSelf-Efficacy
The foundation of human agency
A persons expectancy or belief in his or her behavioral
competence to confront a challenge. Sources of self-efficacy:
Personal/vicarious experiences of success/failure
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Social support and encouragement
Emotional experiences
SUMMARY PART 1:
oSince the emergence of radical behaviorism, theorists have challenged
the primacy of classical/instrumental conditioning
oBanduras social-cognitive theory introduces us to the idea of personal
agencyi.e., the human capacity for self-regulation
PART 2:
Types vs. Traits
Men are from Mars, - Dominance Self - competition
Women are from Venus, - Nurture Cooperation others
Masculine & Feminine Traits
Two independent (statistically orthogonal) dimensions of individual
differences
InstrumentalMasculine–Agentic Characteristics
e.g., dominant, forceful, competitive, individualistic
Expressive–Feminine–Communal Characteristics
e.g., affectionate, cheerful, tender, compassionate
Situated Expression of Gender Differences
oEleanor Maccoby (1990, 1998):
Gender segregation is found in all cultural settings in which children
are in social groups large enough to permit the choice of same-sex
interaction
Gender segregation emerges spontaneously in situations in which
children are not under pressure from parents to engage in cross-sex
interaction
Behavior observation reveals that gender segregation is highly
preferredthe ratio of same-sex to cross-sex interaction is 3:1 at age
four and 11:1 at age six
Boys in Same-Sex Interaction:
ouse commands, threats, boasts of authority
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